Marie Osmond

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How can we improve? A Human Genome Equivalent HuGE review in looked at studies of the connection between genetic mutations affecting leptin regulation and obesity. What's next, support hose and SAS or orthopedic shoes? If you could hunt and gather it, you can eat it. Trust you will be happy you did.

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The corresponding amino acid in humans is encoded by the sequence CGG and would require two nucleotides to be changed to produce a stop codon, which is much less likely to happen.

A recessive frameshift mutation resulting in a reduction of leptin has been observed in two consanguineous children with juvenile obesity. A Human Genome Equivalent HuGE review in looked at studies of the connection between genetic mutations affecting leptin regulation and obesity. They reviewed a common polymorphism in the leptin gene A19G; frequency 0.

They found no association between any of the polymorphisms and obesity. Other rare polymorphisms have been found but their association with obesity are not consistent.

A single case of a homozygous transversion mutation of the gene encoding for leptin was reported in January The transversion of c. The mutant leptin could neither bind to nor activate the leptin receptor in vitro , nor in leptin-deficient mice in vivo. It was found in a two-year-old boy with extreme obesity with recurrent ear and pulmonary infections. Treatment with metreleptin led to "rapid change in eating behavior, a reduction in daily energy intake, and substantial weight loss".

Leptin is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. Leptin circulates in blood in free form and bound to proteins. Leptin levels vary exponentially, not linearly, with fat mass.

In humans, many instances are seen where leptin dissociates from the strict role of communicating nutritional status between body and brain and no longer correlates with body fat levels:. All known leptin mutations except one are associated with low to undetectable immunoreactive leptin blood levels. The exception is a mutant leptin reported in January which is not functional, but is detected with standard immunoreactive methods.

Predominantly, the "energy expenditure hormone" leptin is made by adipose cells , thus it is labeled fat cell-specific. In the context of its effects , it is important to recognize that the short describing words direct , central , and primary are not used interchangeably. In regard to the hormone leptin, central vs peripheral refers to the hypothalamic portion of the brain vs non-hypothalamic location of action of leptin; direct vs indirect refers to whether there is no intermediary, or there is an intermediary in the mode of action of leptin; and primary vs secondary is an arbitrary description of a particular function of leptin.

In vertebrates, the nervous system consists of two main parts, the central nervous system CNS and the peripheral nervous system PNS. The primary effect of leptins is in the hypothalamus , a part of the central nervous system.

Leptin receptors are expressed not only in the hypothalamus but also in other brain regions, particularly in the hippocampus. Thus some leptin receptors in the brain are classified as central hypothalamic and some as peripheral non-hypothalamic. Generally, leptin is thought to enter the brain at the choroid plexus , where the intense expression of a form of leptin receptor molecule could act as a transport mechanism.

Increased levels of melatonin causes a downregulation of leptin, [82] however, melatonin also appears to increase leptin levels in the presence of insulin , therefore causing a decrease in appetite during sleeping.

Mice with type 1 diabetes treated with leptin or leptin plus insulin, compared to insulin alone had better metabolic profiles: Leptin acts on receptors in the lateral hypothalamus to inhibit hunger and the medial hypothalamus to stimulate satiety. Thus, a lesion in the lateral hypothalamus causes anorexia due to a lack of hunger signals and a lesion in the medial hypothalamus causes excessive hunger due to a lack of satiety signals.

The absence of leptin or its receptor leads to uncontrolled hunger and resulting obesity. Fasting or following a very-low-calorie diet lowers leptin levels. Leptin binds to neuropeptide Y NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus in such a way as to decrease the activity of these neurons. Leptin signals to the hypothalamus which produces a feeling of satiety.

Moreover, leptin signals may make it easier for people to resist the temptation of foods high in calories. The NPY neurons are a key element in the regulation of hunger; small doses of NPY injected into the brains of experimental animals stimulates feeding, while selective destruction of the NPY neurons in mice causes them to become anorexic.

Once leptin has bound to the Ob-Rb receptor, it activates the stat3, which is phosphorylated and travels to the nucleus to effect changes in gene expression, one of the main effects being the down-regulation of the expression of endocannabinoids , responsible for increasing hunger. It modulates the immune response to atherosclerosis, of which obesity is a predisposing factor. Exogenous leptin can promote angiogenesis by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Hyperleptinemia produced by infusion or adenoviral gene transfer decreases blood pressure in rats.

Leptin microinjections into the nucleus of the solitary tract NTS have been shown to elicit sympathoexcitatory responses, and potentiate the cardiovascular responses to activation of the chemoreflex. In fetal lung, leptin is induced in the alveolar interstitial fibroblasts "lipofibroblasts" by the action of PTHrP secreted by formative alveolar epithelium endoderm under moderate stretch. The leptin from the mesenchyme, in turn, acts back on the epithelium at the leptin receptor carried in the alveolar type II pneumocytes and induces surfactant expression, which is one of the main functions of these type II pneumocytes.

In mice, and to a lesser extent in humans, leptin is required for male and female fertility. Ovulatory cycles in females are linked to energy balance positive or negative depending on whether a female is losing or gaining weight and energy flux how much energy is consumed and expended much more than energy status fat levels.

When energy balance is highly negative meaning the woman is starving or energy flux is very high meaning the woman is exercising at extreme levels, but still consuming enough calories , the ovarian cycle stops and females stop menstruating. Only if a female has an extremely low body fat percentage does energy status affect menstruation. Leptin levels outside an ideal range may have a negative effect on egg quality and outcome during in vitro fertilization.

The placenta produces leptin. Leptin is also expressed in fetal membranes and the uterine tissue. Uterine contractions are inhibited by leptin. Immunoreactive leptin has been found in human breast milk; and leptin from mother's milk has been found in the blood of suckling infant animals.

Leptin along with kisspeptin controls the onset of puberty. Leptin's ability to regulate bone mass was first recognized in Leptin decreases cancellous bone , but increases cortical bone. This "cortical-cancellous dichotomy" may represent a mechanism for enlarging bone size, and thus bone resistance, to cope with increased body weight. Bone metabolism can be regulated by central sympathetic outflow, since sympathetic pathways innervate bone tissue.

Factors that acutely affect leptin levels are also factors that influence other markers of inflammation, e. While it is well-established that leptin is involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response, [] [] [] it has been further theorized that leptin's role as an inflammatory marker is to respond specifically to adipose-derived inflammatory cytokines.

In terms of both structure and function, leptin resembles IL-6 and is a member of the cytokine superfamily. Similar to what is observed in chronic inflammation, chronically elevated leptin levels are associated with obesity, overeating, and inflammation-related diseases, including hypertension , metabolic syndrome , and cardiovascular disease.

While leptin is associated with body fat mass, however, the size of individual fat cells, and the act of overeating, it is interesting that it is not affected by exercise for comparison, IL-6 is released in response to muscular contractions. Thus, it is speculated that leptin responds specifically to adipose-derived inflammation. Taken as such, increases in leptin levels in response to caloric intake function as an acute pro-inflammatory response mechanism to prevent excessive cellular stress induced by overeating.

When high caloric intake overtaxes the ability of fat cells to grow larger or increase in number in step with caloric intake, the ensuing stress response leads to inflammation at the cellular level and ectopic fat storage, i. The insulin increase in response to the caloric load provokes a dose-dependent rise in leptin, an effect potentiated by high cortisol levels.

This response may then protect against the harmful process of ectopic fat storage, which perhaps explains the connection between chronically elevated leptin levels and ectopic fat storage in obese individuals. Although leptin reduces appetite as a circulating signal, obese individuals generally exhibit a higher circulating concentration of leptin than normal weight individuals due to their higher percentage body fat.

A number of explanations have been proposed to explain this. An important contributor to leptin resistance is changes to leptin receptor signalling, particularly in the arcuate nucleus , however, deficiency of, or major changes to, the leptin receptor itself are not thought to be a major cause.

Other explanations suggested include changes to the way leptin crosses the blood brain barrier BBB or alterations occurring during development. Studies on leptin cerebrospinal fluid CSF levels provide evidence for the reduction in leptin crossing the BBB and reaching obesity-relevant targets, such as the hypothalamus, in obese people. Since the amount and quality of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus appears to be normal in the majority of obese humans as judged from leptin-mRNA studies , [] it is likely that the leptin resistance in these individuals is due to a post leptin-receptor deficit, similar to the post-insulin receptor defect seen in type 2 diabetes.

When leptin binds with the leptin receptor, it activates a number of pathways. Mice with a mutation in the leptin receptor gene that prevents the activation of STAT3 are obese and exhibit hyperphagia. The PI3K pathway may also be involved in leptin resistance, as has been demonstrated in mice by artificial blocking of PI3K signalling. The PI3K pathway also is activated by the insulin receptor and is therefore an important area where leptin and insulin act together as part of energy homeostasis.

The consumption of a high fructose diet from birth has been associated with a reduction in leptin levels and reduced expression of leptin receptor mRNA in rats. Long-term consumption of fructose in rats has been shown to increase levels of triglycerides and trigger leptin and insulin resistance, [] [] however, another study found that leptin resistance only developed in the presence of both high fructose and high fat levels in the diet.

A third study found that high fructose levels reversed leptin resistance in rats given a high fat diet. The contradictory results mean that it is uncertain whether leptin resistance is caused by high levels of carbohydrates or fats, or if an increase of both, is needed. Leptin is known to interact with amylin , a hormone involved in gastric emptying and creating a feeling of fullness.

When both leptin and amylin were given to obese, leptin-resistant rats, sustained weight loss was seen. Due to its apparent ability to reverse leptin resistance, amylin has been suggested as possible therapy for obesity. It has been suggested that the main role of leptin is to act as a starvation signal when levels are low, to help maintain fat stores for survival during times of starvation, rather than a satiety signal to prevent overeating.

Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food. Dieters who lose weight, particularly those with an overabundance of fat cells, experience a drop in levels of circulating leptin. This drop causes reversible decreases in thyroid activity, sympathetic tone, and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle, and increases in muscle efficiency and parasympathetic tone. A decline in levels of circulating leptin also changes brain activity in areas involved in the regulatory, emotional, and cognitive control of appetite that are reversed by administration of leptin.

Osteoarthritis and obesity are closely linked. Obesity is one of the most important preventable factors for the development of osteoarthritis.

Originally, the relationship between osteoarthritis and obesity was considered to be exclusively biomechanically based, according to which the excess weight caused the joint to become worn down more quickly.

However, today we recognise that there is also a metabolic component which explains why obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, not only for weight-bearing joints for example, the knees , but also for joints that do not bear weight for example, the hands. Thus, the deregulated production of adipokines and inflammatory mediators, hyperlipidaemia, and the increase of systemic oxidative stress are conditions frequently associated with obesity which can favour joint degeneration.

Furthermore, many regulation factors have been implicated in the development, maintenance and function, both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the additional link between obesity and osteoarthritis.

Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines.

Certain adipokines can be considered as hormones, as they regulate the functions of organs at a distance, and several of them have been specifically involved in the physiopathology of joint diseases. In particular, there is one, leptin, which has been the focus of attention for research in recent years.

The circulating leptin levels are positively correlated with the Body Mass Index BMI , more specifically with fatty mass, and obese individuals have higher leptin levels in their blood circulation, compared with non-obese individuals. So you'll skip Standard American Diet stuff—red meat, processed foods with trans fats—and eat more veggie protein, nuts, and whole fat dairy.

Spokesperson Marie Osmond says she lost 50 pounds, but could you get the same results on the high protein , high fiber, and low fat meal replacement plan? A recent study compared commercial diet plans and found that Nutrisystem was one of the more successful diets, helping people lose 3.

Though researchers say more long term studies are needed. First you'll meet with a consultant, then pick out your own menu of Jenny Craig food. Meals are designed to be lower cal versions of what you love, like chocolate shakes, pancakes, and burgers.

The combo of social support plus portion control is a fat-busting duo, helping dieters lose nearly 5 percent more weight after a year versus dieters in a control group, according to the same study that evaluated Nutrisystem. It's so promising that researchers think docs should recommend Jenny Craig to their overweight patients.

You'd think that a weight loss competition show would push some sort of crazy gimmicky plan that leaves you starving.

But this one goes heavy on the fruits, veggies, and lean protein— and exercise. Sounds like it makes sense, right? Exactly—and that's why it works. News and World Report rated The Biggest Loser Diet as one of the best for weight loss particularly when you need to slim down fast. When it came onto the scene, it was revolutionary and totally rule-breaking. Eat all the meaty goodness you want—as long as you drastically cut carbs.

And in a study on young, overweight and obese women, Atkins beat out higher-carb plans, when dieters shed over 10 pounds in a year compared to less than five in other diets And, nope, Atkins didn't clog their arteries either. Of course, while it's effective for weight loss, low carb diets can be unbalanced if you eat too much meat and too few veggies.

Think about if it fits your lifestyle—and don't give up on the other components of a healthy diet—before hopping on the carb-cutting bandwagon. A love for the drive thru can get you in trouble: Luckily, though, cleaning up your eats can help reverse some damage to liver cells. The American Liver Foundation recommends keeping them low-cal and loading up on fiber raspberries, lentils, and oatmeal are good choices.

But keep in mind this isn't a fad diet—it's more a medical necessity for those at risk. So while it's generally healthy, there's no reason to go on it specifically unless advised by your doctor. Talk about heart ache: To eat to lower your blood pressure, you just need to focus on heart-healthy bites.

The American Heart Association recommends loading up on fruits, veggies, whole grains, low- or non-fat dairy, beans, lean meats, and fish.

Diet alone can't cure arthritis—but it can help ease joint pain. The key is loading up on foods that lower inflammation, according to the Arthritis Foundation. So go for more fish, nuts, fruits and veggies, whole grains, and olive oil; limit alcohol, saturated fat, processed junk, and sugar. Who could argue with a diet that emphasizes foods like beans, berries, whole grains, greens, nuts, seeds, and potatoes?

Those foods are all good fiber-filled picks. The hunger-taming nutrient is a super star for filing you up, so you naturally eat less throughout the day. Not to mention that, when researchers asked people to make just one change to their diet—add more fiber—they were almost four pounds skinnier after a year compared to those following the American Heart Association dietary guidelines. Aim for at least 30 grams a day and you'll be on the right track.

If you do, experts say that what you eat can make a huge difference in finding relief, especially if you don't want to rely on meds. So you'll eat fewer fatty, greasy foods—goodbye fast food—and avoid alcohol.

Both changes can lead to one nice but unintentional side effect: If you're doing it for quick weight loss or to jumpstart a diet, it can get the job done, says Salzman. But you've got to make those calories count. Choose the 1,calorie plan if going down a dress size is your goal. You could also do a 2,calorie plan if you're in weight maintenance mode. The company sends you low-cal, low-fat already prepared and perfectly portioned meals of fresh food, making this ideal if you don't like to cook or don't have time to do it.

When you're diabetic , it's crucial to eat well to keep blood sugar stable. The American Diabetes Association says you can use visual cues on your plate to do it right: If you're one of the 86 million adults in the US who have pre-diabetes , losing 5 to 7 percent of your body weight can prevent the disease from developing, according to research.

If you've been noticing excess facial hair, period irregularities, acne, and you're obese, your doc may consider Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. PCOS is a hormonal disorder that's associated with insulin resistance and can make it incredibly hard to lose weight. The recommendation combines standard diet advice—eat less, move more—plus a low carb diet ditch the refined carbs, eat high-fiber complex ones to help control insulin.

It's not a specialized, revolutionary diet by any means, but sticking to it can pay off. Research shows losing 5 percent of your body weight can make a huge difference in regaining fertility , clearing your skin , getting rid of unwanted hair, and balancing hormones.

Okay, this one's not for weight loss per se, but if you've got high cholesterol or are at risk for heart disease, your doc might suggest switching up your diet to get your numbers in check. According to the American Heart Association , that means all the basic tenants of eating healthy—the almost boring things you've heard before—eat more fruits and veggies, whole grains, low-fat and non-fat dairy, chicken, fish, nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.

But it's what you're eating less of that really counts. Fewer high-cal foods like sweets, fatty and processed meats, full fat dairy, trans fat, and fried foods is a sure-fire way to not only lower cholesterol, but also cut calories to lose weight.

It's like Michael Pollan famously said: Eat food, not too much, mostly plants. A plant-based diet encourages produce, nuts, seeds, healthy oils, and whole soy like tofu, while still allowing a bit of high-quality meat, fish, and dairy. Not bad for the best diet ever. There's no one set anti-inflammation diet, but for some experts that means eating mostly plant-based and for others it's focusing on whole foods. For Mark Mincolla , Ph. Insulin is an inflammatory hormone that encourages the body to store calories rather than burn them, and can lead to weight gain and type 2 diabetes.

He suggests following a diet of lean protein, low-starch veggies like broccoli and healthy monounsaturated fats like avocado to limit the amount you've got hanging around. It's hard to argue with the American Heart Association. Luckily, the same foods that the AHA recommends —fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, chicken and fish, nuts, legumes—are the same ones that are recommended time and time again for weight loss.

You're also told to limit foods high in sat fat, trans fat, and sodium, which can both help you cut calories and reduce bloating. Sounds good to us. You hear the term glycemic index thrown around, but what does it really mean?

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