Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea): Symptoms & Signs

Naproxen - Clinical Pharmacology

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Scientists reveal how to boost radiotherapy. Sarcoidosis, a disease resulting from chronic inflammation, causes small lumps granulomas to develop in a great range of body Develop an advanced computer program designed to solve one of several problems in the mathematics of probability. This sentence is incorrect. Others may be explained by unrelated medical conditions, such as flu, an ulcer, a drug you are taking, or an injury you did not notice before. Stepping back, it should be obvious that carnivores such as felines and canines provide an important source of data relevant to this question. Does caffeine have an effect on blood pressure?

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Which style of roof truss is the strongest? Which building design is best in withstanding an earthquake? Demonstrate how an AM radio detector can be constructed out of scrap materials and explain the function of the various components. Build a working model of a body temperature monitor and alarm. Might be great for hikers worried about hypothermia Can a small sensory robot be built for use on pavements and highways which will automatically search for and indicate when pavement or highway cracks of a certain size are found so they can be repaired?

Build a freeze alarm. The device would sound an alarm when the temperature dropped below 32 degrees F. Design A Electrically Driven Micrometer Why do the inside of cars get so hot in the sun and what are ways to reduce the heat? Is it possible to reduce noise by adding certain types of noise?

What are the effects on dry wall thickness on sound transmission? Is it possible to eliminate foundation by temperature variation? Is is possible to make a clothes dryer more efficient by using an air-to-air heat exchanger?

Invent an electronic water usage monitor that could be easily attached to a shower head to help the user conserve water Build a wind energy monitor. The output signal from a simple wind speed meter anemometer would be fed to a computer that would calculate and plot the potential energy per unit area each day. Such a system might be useful to help define locations for wind energy farms. Design considerations for "Solar Heated" homes Design considerations for "Solar-Cell" powered homes What are the best designs for propellers for wind generators?

Production of electrical energy from mechanical sources Which substance is best to use in blocking floodwaters? Develop a shower water temperature monitor. Such a device might help conserve energy Study of efficient home insulation.

Which is the best? Illustrate a working model of an electrodeless sulfur lamp. Show how such lamps could save energy in home, office and street lighting needs The effect of landscaping and architecture on energy consumption. What are the annual variations in the ecology of a body of water The study of the impact of pollution on an ecosystem A study of water pollution from feed lot farms Make your own aerogel cubes. Describe some uses for this new material Illustrate how glass foam might be used to make strong building materials with high insulation properties Tracing chemical e.

DDT concentrations in successive food chain levels Ozone destruction experiments A study of air purification methods Come up with some non-chemical methods of purifying water.

Build a lawn moisture sensor. Tells you when it is time to water the lawn. Saveswater by not allowing sprinkler to turn on of the lawn is moist enough Demonstrate how sea wave action could be used to produce fresh water from sea water using reverse osmoses Build an energy monitor that displays gas and electricity usage. Unit connected to the power and gas meters. Maybe place the display next to the thermostat. Displays real time usage as well as weekly and monthly totals Efficient methods of breaking down crude oil in seawater Experimenting with microbial degradation of petroleum Experimenting with biodegradability Can Centrifugal Filtration Be Used to Remove Particles from Water Efficiently and Economically Find and ink that would decompose for recycling paper Rain- can you measure the speed and force of raindrops?

Use of solar energy- design and construct solar cookers, solar panels, etc. An analysis of exhaust emissions of cars as related to the size of cars and tune-up conditions How Carbon Dioxide Affects the Temperature of Air An analysis of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and hydrocarbons in our ambient air.

How much air space maximizes insulation in various materials? Design, construction, and testing of a mechanical method of separating solid waste for recycling. The effect of air pollution on algae, protozoa, fish, insects or mosses and lichens What type of materials are strongest when they interact with acid rain?

Which material filters water the best? The effect of air pollution on algae, protozoa, fish, insects or mosses and lichens Does the amount of particle pollution vary with distance from a road, with location, with height. Determine types of particles found in pollution fallout Exploring methods of controlling erosion Is air in your house the same temperature at floor level and near the ceiling?

How could you spread heat more evenly through the house? Can magnetism be used to remove minerals from "hard" water? Research and demonstrate methods of pasteurizing or purifying water using only sunlight as the source of heat.

Is there a relationship between well water contamination and animal pens? How effective is lettuce as a bioassay medium for determining the toxicity of water contaminants?

What effect does water turbidity have on dissolved oxygen? What are the effects of biodegradable wastes on dissolved oxygen? From which direction does our area receive the most particulate air pollution?

Does carbon dioxide contribute to warming in a closed environment? What aerosols are in the air and does air quality affect asthma rates? Research and experiment with different plants to see if any of them can be used as an indicator of air pollution.

What are the effects on plant life when detergents are added to the soil? Examine and compare the biodegradability of different soap powders. Compare the effects of Polyacrylamide vs. Polyacrylate on soil erosion. Which types of paper decompose the most rapidly when buried? What effect would an oil spill have on plant life? Demonstrate the greenhouse effect by measuring the temperature within a light trap box covered with glass or plastic.

Does the pH of rainwater vary from place to place in our community? How does air pollution affect the growth of algae? What are the effects of carbon dioxide on land plant life? What about water plant life? Are macroinvertebrates indicators of stream health? Can biomass be used to generate electricity by creating methane gas? Can soil besides a roadway be a health hazard?

What are the best grasses to use to reduce the amount of soil in runoff? How to different fabrics compare as barriers against UV radiation? Is is possible to use recycled newspaper to fertilize plants? Which enzyme works best to reduce grease in a grease trap? The mathematics of snowflakes Infinity comes in different "sizes".

What does this mean? How can it be explained? Compare the mean, median and range of heights for males and females in your class. How will this compare to a class one year older? Demonstrate the bell shaped curved for random distribution Does a sphere hold a volume greater than the apparent volume of a cylinder?

Research, explain and demonstrate the use of fractals. Determine how the size of a statistical sample affects its accuracy. What equalities of lengths and angles are sufficient to prove two sets of four points quadrilaterals or quadrangles Build models showing that parallelograms with the same base and height have the same areas. Is there a 3-dimensional analogue? This can lead to a purely visual proof of the Pythagorean theorem, using a physical model based on dissections.

Consider tiling the plane using shapes of the same size. What's possible and what isn't? In particular it can be shown that any 4-sided shape can tile the plane. What about 5 sides? Make sketches in a geometry program Sketchpad, Cabri, or using Kali Investigate compass and straight-edge constructions - showing what's possible and discussing what's not. Investigate constructions using origami paper folding. Can you construct all figures that are constructed with ruler and compass?

Can you construct more figures? What is the fewest number of colors needed to color any map if the rule is that no two countries with a common border can have the same color. Why is the proof interesting? What if Mars is also divided into areas so that these areas are owned by different countries on earth. They too are colored by the same rule but the areas there must be colored by the color of the country they belong to. How many colors are now needed? Polyominoes are shapes made by connecting certain numbers of equal-sized squares together.

How many different ones can be made from 2 squares? Investigate the shapes that polynominoes can make. Investigate the creation of secret codes ciphers.

Find out where they are used today! Look at their history. Build your own using prime numbers. Find out all you can about the Catalan Numbers, 1, 1, 2, 5, 14, 42, Build models to illustrate asymptotic results such as Stirling's formula or the prime number theorem. There is a well-known device for illustrating the binomial distribution. Marbles are dropped through the top and encounter a number of pins before dropping into cells where they are distributed according to the binomial distribution.

By changing the position of the pins one should be able to get other kinds of distributions bimodal, skewed, approximately rectangular, etc. Use Monte Carlo methods to find areas or to estimate pi. Rather than using random numbers, throw a bunch of small objects onto the required area and count the numbers of objects inside the area as a fraction of the total in the rectangular frame.

Look at the ways different bases are used in our culture and how they have been used in other cultures. Look at how other cultures have written their number systems. Demonstrate how to add using the Mayan base 20, maybe compare to trying to add with Roman numerals is it even possible?

Explore the history and use of the Abacus There are several methods of counting and calculating using your fingers and hands. Some of these methods are still in common usage. Explore the mathematics behind one of them. Find out all you can about the Fibonacci Numbers - In particular, where do they arise in nature? What is the Golden Mean? Study its appearance in art, architecture, biology, and geometry, and its connection with continued fractions, Fibonacci numbers.

What else can you find out? If that's not enough, do squares, pentagonal numbers, hexagonal numbers, etc. Venture into the third and even the fourth dimensions.

Use your computer to draw fractals based on simple equations such as Julia sets and Mandelbrot sets. Find examples of all of them and understand how they differ.

Is there an algorithm for getting out of 2-dimensional mazes? Look at the history of mazes some are extraordinary. How would you go about finding someone who is lost in a maze 2 or 3 dimensional and wandering randomly? How many people would you need to find them? Investigate the Steiner problem - one application of which is concerned with the location of telephone exchanges to minimize costs. Construct a double pendulum and use it to investigate chaos.

All forms of gambling are based on probability. Investigate how much casinos anticipate winning from you when you play black-jack, roulette, etc. Study a variety of lotteries and compare them. Should one ever buy a lottery ticket? Why does three of a kind beat two pairs in poker? Discover why the different types of hands are ranked as they are.

Study the cycloid curve: Investigate visual representations of different finite numbers. Investigate self-avoiding random walks and where they naturally occur. Find as many triangles as you can with integer sides and a simple linear relation between the angles.

What about the special case when the triangle is right-angled? What is a hexaflexagon? Make as may different ones as you can. What is going on? What is fractal dimension? Investigate it by examining examples showing what happens when you double the scale to a lines b areas c solids d the Koch curve Explore Penrose tiles and discover why they are of interest. Do different genres of music each exhibit a unique mathematical pattern? How can the shortest path algorithm be modified to include traffic conditions?

How does the size of a statistical sample affect its accuracy? Do the non-smoking sections in a restaurant protect you from second-hand smoke? Does a person's body temperature vary during the day? What is the affect on the kidneys from drinking different types of liquids?

Does drinking alcohol dehydrate the body? How accurately can people judge room temperature? Construct a homemade stethoscope and use it to listen to heartbeats and measure heart rate. Does a person's pulse rate vary during the day? The objective is to determine whether the mental connation of smells correlates with the heart's response to the scents of aldehydes primarily fruit and flower based and phenols primarily leave, bark, or root based. What are the effects of passive smoke on ciliary function?

Following strenuous exercise, does pulse rate stabilize faster in athletes than in non-athletes? Following strenuous exercise, which fluid is best to drink? Does the type of pushup affect muscle growth? Compare the neural discrimination times between assorted groups of people.

What is the effect of ingested orange juice on blood sugar levels? What affect does exercise have on the oxygen level in the bloodstream? Compare blood pressure readings between assorted groups: How effective is hypnosis as a method for reducing stress? Chitosan is considered potentially useful for numerous applications ranging from biomedical to industrial.

Experiment with ways it would be beneficial in the medical field. Does jet lag affect the performance of professional sports teams? Are there measurable changes in temperature, pulse or respiration following ingestion of caffeine? The main immune cell of the lymphatic system, further categorized as B lymphocytes which produce antibodies and T lymphocytes which help the body distinguish self from nonself.

A large cell that engulfs ingests microbes after they have been targeted for destruction by the immune system. A group aggregation of atoms chemically combined to form a unique chemical substance. A type of lymphocyte that can kill certain microbes and cancer cells. A large white blood cell leukocyte that ingests antigens and other substances.

Two or more amino acids chemically bonded to form a single molecule. A large number of amino acids chemically bonded in a chain. Proteins are large peptides. A molecule on the cell surface or in the cytoplasm that fits another molecule like a lock and key.

The Lymphatic part of the Immune System The immune system maintains its own system of circulation--the lymphatic vessels--which permeates every organ in the body except the brain. The lymphatic vessels contain a pale, thick fluid lymph consisting of a fat-laden liquid and white blood cells. Along the lymphatic vessels are special areas--the lymph nodes, tonsils, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, and intestines--where lymphocytes can be recruited, mobilized, and deployed to appropriate sites as part of the immune response.

The ingenious design of this system ensures the ready availability and quick assembly of an immune response anywhere it is needed.

This system can be seen at work when a wound or an infection in a fingertip leads to an enlarged lymph node at the elbow, or when a throat infection causes the lymph nodes under the jaw to swell. The lymph nodes swell because the lymphatic vessels drain the infection by carrying it to the nearest area where an immune response can be organized.

SSRIs, serotonin, and the immune system Antidepressants like Prozac and Zoloft, which affect a brain chemical called serotonin, also influence the body's immune system. Prozac and Zoloft belong to a group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or "SSRIs," which are thought to combat depression by causing serotonin to linger longer at nerve junctions. Serotonin also works as a signaling molecule between certain immune cells such as dendritic cells and T cells.

The findings indicate that dendritic cells can pick up serotonin at sites of inflammation and then pass it to T cells, which influences their growth and division into new cells.

Treatment with the antidepressant Prozac fluoxetine blocked this serotonin uptake. Further research is needed to better understand how SSRIs might affect the immune system, whether for the better or worse. Immune system and employment Have a career that satisfies you.

The stress of unemployment may dampen healthy people's immune system function -- but the good news is that finding a job can restore its fighting power. Immune System Research clinical trials Older men who exercise regularly may not only keep themselves in good shape, they may also give their immune systems a boost. Physically active seniors who were injected with a protein to provoke an immune system reaction mounted an immune response similar to that seen in men half their age. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle may prevent or slow age-associated decline in immune function.

Erythromycin, a widely used antibiotic long considered safe dramatically increases the risk of cardiac arrest, particularly when taken with some popular drugs for infections and high blood pressure. Washing hands with soap can halve the number of young children suffering from pneumonia, the leading killer of youngsters under 5 years old worldwide.

It can also greatly reduce cases of diarrhea and the skin infection impetigo. The aging process can lead to a decline in immune function. In an article published in the December issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, thirty healthy elderly volunteers participated in a 3-stage dietary supplementation trial lasting 9 weeks.

During stage 1, subjects consumed low-fat milk for 3 weeks as a base-diet control. During stage 2 intervention , they consumed milk supplemented with bifidobacteria for 3 wk.

During stage 3 washout , they again consumed low-fat milk for 3 weeks. The results showed an increase in the ability of white blood cells to attack organisms or kill tumor cells after bifidobacterium consumption. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus is a microbe found naturally on the skin of healthy people.

It is a particular threat to patients whose immune system is weakened and is particularly dangerous in hospitals. This bug has become resistant to some of the most advanced drugs ever made, but researchers found garlic reduces its effectiveness in the body.

Other research suggests garlic may work against fungal infections and parasites, and that it may increase the body's resistance to viruses, including the common cold.

Practical recommendations for immune-enhancing diets. Immune system -enhancing diets contain nutrients that have putative benefits, including arginine, n-3 fats, glutamine, nucleotides, and structured lipids. Although under most circumstances the systemic inflammatory response is beneficial to the host, improving the eventual outcome of injury, infection, or inflammation, excessive proinflammation leading to cardiac, hepatic, and mitochondrial dysfunction or excessive counterinflammation leading to immune depression can worsen outcome.

In critically ill septic patients, the synthesis of arginine can be exceeded by its catabolism to nitric oxide NO and urea, rendering arginine conditionally essential. In septic patients, supplemental arginine might further increase NO levels and be potentially harmful through excessive proinflammation. However, administration of increased amounts of arginine might improve immune function in surgical and trauma patients by increasing NO production in macrophages.

When the diet provides at least 1 g of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid combined, 2-series eicosanoids prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes are replaced partially by 3-series eicosanoids, and 4-series leukotrienes are replaced partially by 5-series leukotrienes that are less proinflammatory. Thus, the effects of arginine and n-3 -fat supplementation might be expected to be complementary-arginine might improve cytokine and NO production in patients with immunodepression, whereas n-3 fats might be beneficial when there is excessive proinflammation, particularly when supplemental arginine is supplied, by reducing cytokine-induced eicosanoid production.

Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum and its possible mechanisms. Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities. Large numbers of studies have shown that reishi modulates many components of the immune system such as the antigen-presenting cells, NK cells, T and B lymphocytes.

The water extract and the polysaccharides fraction of reishi exhibited significant anti-tumor effect in several tumor-bearing animals mainly through its immune system enhancing activity. Recent studies also showed that the alcohol extract or the triterpene fraction of reishi possessed anti-tumor effect, which seemed to be related to the cytotoxic activity against tumor cells directly.

Preliminary study indicated that antiangiogenic effect may be involved antitumor activity of reishi. Exposure to Bacteria Shopping cart handles are the most bacteria-infested items among some commonly used objects while doorknobs on public bathrooms are not as bad as might be expected.

The Korea Consumer Protection Board tested six items that are commonly handled by the public and ran tests for their bacteria content.

Shopping cart handles led the way with 1, colony-forming units of bacteria per 1. Hand straps on buses were next with units, followed by bathroom doorknobs at Rounding out the list were elevator buttons at colony-forming units and hand straps on subways at Washing hands with soap removes almost all of the bacteria.

There has been lots of news about the potential "bird flu" epidemic that could explode in the US. Is there anything people can do to possibly counter it with natural supplements?

Perhaps to strengthen one's immune system? Sahelian plan to write about it in his newsletter? At this time, we don't have any specific information on how to fight bird flu naturally except for the usual steps to enhance one's immune system as mentioned on this web page. But if we do find something, we will mention it. When someone takes foods or supplements that are said to improve the immune system, such as ginseng, noni or spirulina, is there an increase in the number of white blood cells in the body?

And if so wouldn't this register in blood tests as an increase in the "white blood cell count, and therefore lead doctors to think that there could be an infectious process going on?

I don't exactly don't know how this works so I'm really not sure. This is a good question. The immune system is extremely complex. It involves not only white blood cells, but several other types of cells and countless chemical substances. Different herbs and substances have different effects on the immune system, and the same supplement could have a different effect on different people. Plus, the dose could influence the outcome. The same herb may stimulate some aspects of the immune system at one dosage and inhibit it a a different dosage.

Cirrhosis is severe scarring of the liver caused by chronic liver disease. As healthy liver tissue is damaged over a long period of time, it is replaced by scar tissue, affecting the structure of the liver and decreasing its ability to function. It is linked to approximately 32, deaths annually in the United States.

Cirrhosis is seen with a variety of chronic liver diseases and may take years or even decades to develop. Unlike scars in other parts of the body, some of the scarring that occurs in the liver is reversible, even in people with cirrhosis.

The liver is a vital organ located in the upper right-hand side of the abdomen. Among other functions, it helps convert nutrients from food into essential blood components, produces many of the factors necessary for normal blood clotting, metabolizes and detoxifies substances that would otherwise be harmful to the body, and produces bile — a fluid necessary for the digestion of fats. Liver diseases can affect any of these functions.

These diseases may be the result of infection, physical injury, exposure to a toxin , an autoimmune process, or due to a genetic defect that leads to the build-up of substances such as copper or iron. The damage that liver diseases cause can lead to inflammation, obstruction to bile flow, and clotting abnormalities.

Prolonged and persistent damage can lead to the accumulation of excess connective tissue, or fibrosis of the liver, which is how cirrhosis develops. With cirrhosis, the structure of the liver changes, forming nodules of cells surrounded by fibrous tissue. This tissue does not function like healthy liver tissue and can interfere with the flow of blood and bile through the liver. As cirrhosis progresses, it can begin to affect other organs and tissues throughout the body.

Some examples of these effects and complications include:. Individuals with cirrhosis are also at high risk of developing liver cancer. When injury to the liver is acute or damage is limited, the liver can usually repair itself.

However, repeated injury or damage occurring over many years can lead to the development of cirrhosis. Causes are wide-ranging but generally fall into one of several categories:.

The frequency of these causes varies by population and geographic region. In the United States, about half of the cases of cirrhosis are caused by chronic hepatitis C infection and chronic alcohol abuse alcoholism.

Chronic hepatitis B infection sometimes with hepatitis D co-infection causes a significant number of cases and is a major cause in many parts of the world.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASH are significant non-infectious causes of cirrhosis, and the frequency of this cause is increasing.

Many people with cirrhosis have little or no clinical evidence of disease. Symptoms may not emerge until significant scarring of the liver has occurred. It is important to detect cirrhosis as soon as possible since significant liver damage may occur with few or no symptoms. If the cause of liver damage can be eliminated or controlled, further scarring will stop and some existing scars may actually resolve. While blood tests can detect liver injury, there is no single test that can be used to diagnose cirrhosis.

A liver biopsy is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing cirrhosis, but the procedure is invasive and will not detect every case. Additional tests may be performed to help diagnose the underlying cause and to monitor the affected person's health over time.

This can include monitoring for the possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Both panels include the following tests:. If any of these tests are abnormal, then they will be further investigated.

The pattern of results is more informative than the result of any single test. Many of the tests listed above are used to monitor the progression of cirrhosis. As the condition worsens, results may become increasingly abnormal.

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