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You would improve your nutritional intake far more by eating a larger volume of fruits and vegetables than by eating organic ones instead of conventionally produced ones. I am a child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist who specialize in helping individuals get off of prescription medications and restore their mental health through holistic means. For the latest rural news, opinion, video, photos and subscriber-only competitions. People who did not own their home, did not have it in a family trust, and were making rent payments to Housing New Zealand Corporation, local authority or city council, or other state-owned corporation or state-owned enterprise, or government department or ministry. It takes as a central thesis the view that at least some of the differences in the distribution of nutritional status and physical activity have socio-cultural bases that are either independent of socioeconomic factors or that condition culturally specific responses to socioeconomic factors.
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A number of research studies now provide credible evidence that effective education about nutrition can motivate and enable children and young people to make food choices that contribute to healthy lifestyles. In order to adapt their eating habits, children and young people need opportunities to prepare and taste new foods.
Learning the practical skills of cooking can help people become critically aware and rely less on pre-prepared foods that are likely to be high in fat, sugar, and salt. Communities, schools, and parents can work together to help students develop attitudes and skills to make consistent health-related choices. Food tastes develop at an early age, and encouraging healthy choices early in life can help to create lifelong preferences for healthy foods.
Most do not eat food just because of its nutritional value. The many interrelated factors affecting what children choose to eat makes it important for them to be able to access accurate knowledge and information about food and nutrition.
The following research findings may help early childhood education services and schools to identify priorities when implementing their food and nutrition policy.
The survey identified that one in five children were overweight and one in ten were obese, and as children got older, their diets became less healthy. For example, younger children ate fruit more often, consumed less sugar and sweets, and had a lower rate of overweight and obesity than older children. The quality of school-produced food is most critical for children who buy food from the school canteen on a regular basis. This evidence is supported by results from the national nutrition survey Ministry of Health, conducted on people 15 years and over.
These showed that only two out of five to year-olds met the recommended number of daily vegetable servings and less than two out of five boys aged 15—18 met the recommended number of daily fruit servings per day.
Therefore, adolescents are especially likely to benefit from a healthy food and nutrition environment at school. Many early childhood education services and schools are already aware of the important links between food, health, and learning and are taking steps to improve the food and nutrition environment, for example, by providing a pleasant environment in which food and beverages are consumed and by giving consistent, accurate, messages about food.
Children and young people may spend a large proportion of their waking day in early childhood education services or at school. Approximately one-third of their daily food intake is consumed on the premises, and the proportion may be higher for some young children attending all-day early childhood education services.
This makes it important that the whole education community is aware of and supports policies guiding food and beverage choices. The foods and beverages available in the education environment can influence what children eat.
However, the majority of children 84 percent brought their lunches to school. Policies about what is sold or served on the premises can help to ensure that healthy choices are available.
Such policies can provide a framework for all staff and suppliers of food and beverages in education settings and can include requirements governing safety and hygiene.
Choices about food and beverages can have an impact on the wider environment as well as on health. Cooking food from scratch can save money and resources because others are not being paid to prepare, package, transport, and advertise the meals.
Food prepared using fresh ingredients is also healthier and more nutritious. Cooking can be a creative and socially important activity. Research shows that when families eat meals together, children are more likely to achieve at school and have fewer health problems. Teaching and learning opportunities that encourage eating food together can provide opportunities to involve communities.
Adopting the principles of sustainability can also encourage community support, help use local resources, and provide further insight into the impact of choices about food and beverages. The process of developing or reviewing a food and nutrition policy enables an early childhood education service or school to arrive at a shared philosophy about all aspects of food and beverages sold or served on the premises.
A food and nutrition policy provides guidance for the licensee and manager in early childhood education services, or board and principal in schools, about food and nutrition in their learning environments.
Developing the policy is their responsibility, in consultation with the community. A policy statement could be as follows. Food and nutrition education is an integral part of a comprehensive health education programme. All young people need to be able to make food and beverage choices based on their cultural preferences and on sound knowledge and information.
Children and young people need to understand the importance of food and nutrition to all aspects of their health and well-being, including their mental, physical, and emotional health. They can also influence the eating patterns of others in their environment. Being able to prepare, cook, and serve food is an important part of making choices about food. Being able to cook enables young people to have more control over what they eat.
Preparing and cooking food provides opportunities to taste new foods and to understand the composition of food and the way ingredients behave during cooking. It enables the transfer of knowledge in real contexts, for example, by using numeracy when calculating ingredients, budgeting, or interpreting food labels. Students can also develop their creativity and experience a sense of accomplishment.
Sharing food with others can help develop social skills. A number of teaching and learning approaches have brought about improvements in eating habits. The focus is on providing experiences that can help children learn how to stay healthy and how to develop self-help and self-care skills.
Children can develop working theories about nutrition, for example, they may begin to develop skills in food preparation, to develop knowledge of healthy food choices, and to understand the cultural importance of certain foods.
The food and nutrition key area of learning in Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum states that students:. Ministry of Education, , page Best-practice teaching and learning about food and nutrition includes opportunities to critically evaluate the techniques and approaches used to influence food choices.
Through curriculum-based teaching and learning, using health promotion approaches, students can develop the knowledge and skills to take action about their own food choices and to have a positive influence on those of others.
The underlying concepts of Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum and The New Zealand Curriculum guide approaches to food and nutrition in schools and provide a framework for teaching and learning. In relation to Food and Nutrition for Healthy, Confident Kids, these dimensions can be described as follows. Taha tinana, or physical well-being, includes food consumed for physical health, growth, and development; a balance of the required nutrients; and adequate hydration.
Taha hinengaro, or mental and emotional well-being, encompasses the cultural traditions and mental and emotional influences on food choice. Spiritual well-being, or taha wairua, can include the specific meanings food conveys to individuals. Children and young people can use strategies and actions designed to improve health and quality of life by:. Working in the context of health promotion enables young people to experience making autonomous decisions about food that can enhance their own health and that of others.
When they make decisions for themselves, they are much more likely to develop a commitment to choosing healthy food and a balanced and varied diet based on wise food choices. Teaching and learning approaches that encourage student involvement in health-promoting approaches can be found in the chapter Teaching and Learning. Taking a socio-ecological perspective helps young people understand how the aspects of well-being are influenced by social and environmental factors and by other people. For example, choices about food and beverages can be shaped or influenced by factors such as advertising, ethnic or cultural traditions, food costs, and the food available.
See the Competencies section in this chapter. Curriculum-based teaching and learning encourages students to acknowledge the diverse ways in which people meet their needs for food and nutrition and to develop their own attitudes, values, and commitment to making healthy food choices. Health promotion processes that involve children and young people in making choices about what is sold or served can encourage their commitment to consuming healthier foods.
Health promotion processes provide a framework for young people to use as they become competent in activities centred on addressing food and nutrition issues. Involving young people in identifying or selecting issues to address gives them a greater sense of purpose and ownership. When an issue has been agreed on, young people can engage in the action learning process. Visualise how things could be, including how to engage stakeholders, to help consider what improvements could be made to available food.
Determine what is possible and identify what could help students to achieve their goal enablers and what could hinder them barriers. Evaluate and identify what students have learned from the experience and consider further issues that may arise. Young people involved in health-promoting approaches also adopt a socio-ecological perspective, developing and applying a range of competencies.
Food and nutrition is one of the key knowledge bases underpinning food technology. Young people can develop their technological literacy in the context of food technology. For example, students can:. Within technological practice, students learn to use empowering processes. Students can develop and adapt foods that are enjoyable and healthy for sale in the school. Teaching young people the techniques of testing and evaluating food helps develop their powers of description.
They can come to understand how subjective qualities are used in evaluative studies to ensure different markets are catered for.
Children and young people also have opportunities to develop understandings of and tolerance for the specific needs of others, such as those following vegetarian or gluten-free diets or diets determined by religious beliefs.
Teaching and learning about food and nutrition needs to include opportunities to critically evaluate the techniques and approaches used to influence food and beverage choices. Many learning materials and prepared programmes on food and nutrition are available to support teaching and learning. Some are specifically for the use of the classroom teacher, some are for teacher reference, and some are for young people to use. The Home Economics and Technology Teachers Association of New Zealand may be contacted for advice about food- and nutrition-related learning materials contact details can be found at Health and Physical Education Online.
Many teachers select activities from a variety of learning materials and develop their own programmes. Many educational materials are supplied or sponsored by the food and beverage industry. These materials fall into three categories: They are nearly always provided free of charge, and their format varies widely from content-only to highly developed lesson plans along with supporting content material.
Increasingly, the materials are available online as well as in hard copy. Ideally, all commercially prepared resources should be assessed to ensure that they support the principles of healthy eating.
Teachers planning to use a sponsored resource need to consider whether the resource supports the curriculum focus and objectives they have selected. Before selecting learning materials, such as videos, pamphlets, posters, and books, consider the following:. Providing opportunities for children and young people to practise health-promoting behaviour enables them to take or lead action to bring about change and enhances their motivation to learn, their ownership of the learning, and its relevance to them.
Working in contexts that are based on personal, organisational, or community needs helps children to develop knowledge in meaningful ways. Teachers and educators in early childhood education services play an important role in fostering knowledge and understanding about healthy food and nutrition and in providing opportunities for children to make healthy choices.
Children are empowered to make choices about healthy food and nutrition, for example, by preparing, serving, and eating food; finding out which foods are healthy; and making choices from those provided.
Learning about healthy food and nutrition choices is promoted through responsive and reciprocal relationships with people, places, and things in the early childhood education service, for example, through growing, harvesting, and sharing vegetables and fruit and using the produce when cooking with the children. This provides them with a range of learning opportunities as well as encouraging them to make healthy food and beverage choices.
Project Quality Assurance Plans PQAPs and standard operating procedures SOPs , while not required by many universities or nongovernmental institutions, are nevertheless recommended as useful tools for maintaining overall research quality.
A PQAP should include a description of the project design and approach to the problem, a statement of anticipated deliverables, and a description of how the data will be reported for instance, as individual measurements or in a reduced form.
The PQAP documents the principles, policies, organizational responsibilities, objectives, implementation actions, and accountability procedures that will ensure an appropriate quality process throughout a research project. Emergency contacts and contingency plans for animal care may be included in a PQAP. The PQAP should identify how unauthorized laboratory personnel or research project areas will be controlled and biosecurity maintained.
For research involving field sampling, the PQAP should include a sampling plan outlining the methods, equipment, and procedures, as well as safety procedures for personnel.
For laboratory research, sample preparation and analytical methods should be specified. SOPs for routine, specialized, or unpublished methods should be identified. Data quality objectives should be identified for each measured parameter, and quality control procedures to be used, whether in the field or under laboratory conditions, should be stated. Corrective actions should be specified should problems arise. Finally, a quality assurance QA report should be generated at the conclusion of the study.
This report should include a summary of the PQAP, results of technical systems and performance evaluation audits, corrective actions taken and results of those actions, data quality assessments precision, accuracy, representativeness, completeness, comparability, and reporting limits , a discussion of whether the QA objectives were met, and limitations on use of data collected during the research. SOPs document routine or repetitive technical activities, or those that occur occasionally yet need to be followed in the exact fashion as the previous time.
Ideally, SOPs ensure that work is done correctly the first time, thereby reducing unnecessary repetition and costs. If research data are generated in a setting where the same procedures are used yet personnel change with time, SOPs help maintain consistency. Some institutions require SOPs for assuring that job applicants can perform the needed tasks. SOPs also can form an essential part of effective training programs. General SOPs, not specific to individual studies, may be established as basic procedures for entire research laboratories or institutions.
Examples of specific technical tasks for which SOPs are useful in conducting research with fishes include blood sampling, vaccination protocols, procedures for electrofishing, preparation of solutions for use as sedatives, and techniques for collecting meristic data.
Policies requiring adherence to SOPs and PQAPs in research protocols are to allow for the development of new procedures and for the revision or expansion of established procedures whereby new study techniques are developed. Inherent in the use of animals in research is the responsibility for efficient, effective design of experimental studies, wherein healthy animals without abnormal physiognomies and behaviors will facilitate study results, and for humane treatment of experimental subjects Klontz and Smith ; Snieszko ; Klontz ; NRC Study objectives should be clearly stated, and explanations should be provided on the need for the type and quantity of data to be collected, as well as what will constitute an end to the experiment.
The number of animal subjects required for an investigation will depend on the questions being explored. Field studies and laboratory studies typically require greatly different statistical designs. The life stage of the fish used in each study will also affect the numbers needed. Studies of early life stages may require very large numbers of individuals.
In all cases, studies should be designed to use the fewest animals necessary to reliably answer the questions posed. The use of adequate numbers to establish variance and to ensure reliability is essential so as to prevent needless repetition of the study ASIH et al.
Pseudoreplication can result from wrongly treating multiple samples from one experimental unit as multiple experimental units or from using experimental units that are not statistically independent Heffner et al. Statistical power analysis can improve designs of experiments Peterman Conducting statistical power analyses ensures the development of study designs that have the appropriate statistical power to accomplish research objectives.
In laboratory studies, experimental endpoints, other than death of the experimental subjects, should be developed unless mortality is required by the study protocol. The use of mortality as an endpoint is appropriate when one or both of the following criteria are met: Studies that require mortality endpoints include, but are not limited to, those concerning the effects of pathogens and parasites, toxicological research, and physiological tolerance. In laboratory studies involving fishes, healthy subjects are prerequisites for reliable data Jenkins a , unless an infectious disease is part of the experimental protocol.
Fish used in research must be free of any notable microbial presence that could indicate a diseased condition. Fish free from infectious fish pathogens generally will be satisfactory; however, an unrecognized disease condition, even at chronic or nonlethal levels, can seriously confound research results Lawrence et al.
The source of fish used in research will, in general, influence their health status. Fish raised in captivity have a level of health oversight that will not occur in wild-caught fish. When inquiring about the health status of fish at a culture facility, the researcher can request specific information including any available fish health inspection reports. When fish are brought into a laboratory setting from the wild, the researcher should expect that microorganisms are present.
If no disease symptoms are apparent, this is no guarantee that these wild-caught fish are free from problematic disease organisms. Once those fish are in a laboratory setting, the culture conditions and associated stressors will be very different from those in the natural environment, whereby an active disease event can develop.
Many laboratories will administer formalin baths to newly arrived fish during an acclimation period see section 7. The goal is to eliminate external protozoa and monogeneans from the fish. It is not recommended that fish be routinely administered antibiotics for bacterial pathogens as this practice may lead to the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Any fish that die in the laboratory setting should undergo a proper diagnostic evaluation by an individual with expertise in fish health. Determining the cause of such mortalities will greatly aid the development of health management protocols for a facility.
For laboratory colonies of fish that are maintained on a long-term basis, a surveillance program may be established whereby a limited number of fish are selected at regular intervals for diagnostic evaluations to determine if any problematic pathogens are present. As with the performance of diagnostic evaluations on mortalities, data gained through surveillance efforts will provide valuable information regarding if pathogens are present in a colony so that appropriate management practices can be put in place to limit any impacts.
In fact, in both captive-reared and wild-caught fishes, the investigator may expect to find various infectious organisms. The presence of such infectious organisms may not cause disease or prevent the use of the host fishes in research, but the relative importance of their presence must be evaluated for possible effects on research results Winton Testing for specific pathogens or parasites may be warranted.
Diagnostic procedures continually improve and allow for greater confidence that pathogens of concern are not present or not present in numbers great enough to affect the accuracy or reliability of research results.
Steps should be taken in consultation with a fish health specialist or veterinarian to address any fish health issues in a manner that provides for the health and well-being of the fish and also supports the research. If a disease condition is part of the experimental design, the potential effects of the pathogen or parasite on research results should be predictable or constitute a variable that is being tested through the research.
If fishes are treated for a disease with a therapeutic compound prior to study initiation, they should not be used until sufficient time has passed to eliminate any residues of the treatment. Consideration of any other effects of the treatment on the representative status of the subject fish must be included in the design of the study and in the analyses of data derived from that study.
If experimental fishes are to be treated for a disease, FDA-approved drugs should be used and current FDA regulations followed Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] , although considerable flexibility is provided by the FDA for research conducted in laboratory settings. In addition, veterinarians are allowed to prescribe extra-label uses of drugs under some circumstances. Institutional, local, or state guidelines pertaining to the administration of drugs must be followed, and EPA, state, and local regulations pertaining to effluent discharges that may contain drugs must also be observed.
The UFR Committee recognizes the fact that many drugs and disease treatments have been used in the past with some degree of apparent success in combating the signs of disease; however, the UFR Committee believes that considerable caution should be exercised in the use of any drug that has not received FDA approval.
There are some compounds which are not currently approved but which can be legally accessed for use in fish e. Please see section 7. A list of the substances that seem effective but are as yet unapproved are not included here because of the danger that such an inclusion could be misconstrued as endorsement of unapproved drugs.
Fishes treated with substances that have not been approved by the FDA must not be released nor consumed. Complete records of all disease treatments must be maintained because FDA inspectors may order a review of these files. Approved therapeutic compounds have information sheets or labels that specify guidance on the use of that substance with the fish species. Research designed to study the efficacy, safety to fish, human safety, or environmental safety of the disease treatments should be designed in consultation with the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine and ultimately receive their concurrence.
If the fishes may eventually be released or if they could become food items for human consumption, it is imperative that FDA regulations be observed in detail. Additional information may be obtained from the Web sites for the FDA http: The investigator must have knowledge of all regulations pertaining to the animals under study, as well as to biosecurity issues, and must obtain all permits necessary for carrying out proposed studies ASIH et al.
Responsibility for compliance rests with the institution and, ultimately, with the principal investigator. Investigators working outside of the United States should comply with all wildlife regulations of the country in which the research is being performed. Trades range from live animals to a vast array of wildlife products, including sturgeon caviar. The text of the Convention was finalized in Washington, D. The regulations of the Convention, however, do not replace national laws; rather, they provide a framework to be respected by each Party.
International trade in animals and animal products calls for regulations designed to prevent the spread of transmissible diseases to individual animals, between groups of animals, and to humans Jenkins b. Disease risks should be assessed and precautions taken to minimize risks before wildlife is translocated Cunningham see sections 3. Focus includes global animal health and disease and the dissemination of veterinary science information.
They publish two Codes terrestrial and aquatic and two Manuals terrestrial and aquatic. The Codes aim to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and their products. Publications through OECD address fish and fisheries policies with topics including fisheries globalization and toxicological testing guidelines. These publications take into account sustainable communities and animal welfare concerns. Annual reports, newsletters, working papers, guidelines, best practices, and legal instruments can be viewed through the OECD Web site.
Countries may participate in international fisheries forums through such organizations as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO, http: Guidelines written for specific countries may be researched through contact with such international authorities. Specific guidelines on vertebrates are provided.
Article 49 states that each member state is to establish a national committee for the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. The committees are to provide advice on the acquisition, breeding, accommodation, care, and use of animals in scientific procedures, thereby ensuring the use and sharing of best practices European Union Documents within EU law are available online http: Under Item 59 of the Act, angling, which pertains to catching and landing fish, is excluded; however, responsibilities for operating a fishery and for the welfare of the fishes contained therein are not excluded Defra The FVS promotes fish care and health management for multiple settings, including those for ornamentals.
In Australia, the Department of Agriculture http: Biosecurity can be defined in many ways Falk et al. The FAO defines biosecurity as a strategic and integrated approach that encompasses the policy and regulatory frameworks that analyze and manage risks in the sectors of food safety, animal life and health, and plant life and health, including associated environmental risk.
Disease occurrence is dependent on the health of the animals, the condition of the environment, and the presence of a pathogen at levels sufficient to negatively affect health see section 7. Generally, regulations, appropriate permits see section 3. New Zealand, by virtue of its unique geographic isolation and economic agricultural base, has a plethora of legislation dealing with biosecurity issues Biosecurity Act Various circumstances hold biosecurity as a concern with regard to working with fish.
These include state, regional, national, and international transfers of fish and fish products, aquaculture production, and the ornamental industry. Implementation of biosecurity at the global level and organizations working therein were delineated by Scarfe Biosecurity is a dynamic discipline because of advances in diagnostic technologies and knowledge about epidemiology and pathogenesis.
When considering cryopreserved gametes and early life stages of aquatic species, biosecurity practices enable artificial spawning methods to deliver genetics safely. Issues involve disease transmission, introduction of exotic species, genetic consequences for target species, and genetic consequences for ecosystems Tiersch and Jenkins Microorganisms see section 5.
Pathogen control strategies are a concern for small fish models used as biomedical models, especially Zebrafish Brachydanio rerio also known as zebra danio Danio rerio , Japanese Medaka Orzyias latipes , and species of the genus Xiphophorus Lawrence et al.
Contemporary international and national regulatory frameworks, treaties, partnerships, and agreements addressing the transfer of aquatic animals and aquaculture products can be adapted as mechanisms for the oversight of unique temporal and geographic biosecurity issues inherent with the circumstance.
Some countries may already have regulations, which are likely aligned with OIE recommendations and EU requirements, for the activities of mammalian artificial insemination industries.
Additionally, core institutional biosecurity tenants may be necessary in achieving compliance with international regulations. In the United States, federal authority for the use of animals in research is found primarily in two agencies, the U. If endangered, threatened, or candidate species for listing are involved, the U. Department of the Interior http: Department of Commerce http: Authority for each Department is found in specific Acts of Congress.
This Act charged the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the responsibility of establishing guidelines for proper care and treatment of animals used in research and for organizing and operating animal care committees. This provides a framework for conducting research in accordance with the PHS policy. Although fishes are not included under the AWA, investigators should be familiar with the general content and intent of the AWA.
The complete AWA, including all amendments , , , and following the enactment, can be found in United States Code A compilation of information sources related to fish welfare is available from the USDA Erickson , http: A compilation of information sources relevant for biomedical research and amphibian, fish, and reptilian animal models is available Crawford et al.
Principles and procedures that govern research, testing, and teaching activities involving laboratory animals in the Department of Veterans Affairs is available Veterans Health Administration , http: The Ornithological Council has online Guidelines to the use of wild birds in research Fair et al.
The Act specifies that procedures that may cause distress see section 4. Animal Welfare Considerations are to be minimized in experimental procedures and that alternatives to such procedures are to be considered by the principal investigator.
It also specifies elimination or minimization of unnecessary duplication of experiments on animals to help allay public concern for laboratory animal care and treatment. States and tribal authorities may have specific legislative statutes that empower them to regulate the use of animals in research.
Typically, such regulations may be found in the laws pertaining to natural resources, health, and agricultural use of fishes and wildlife and are available through the appropriate state government agency.
Interstate transport of fishes, and in some situations intrastate transport, is regulated at the state level. Investigators are urged to determine which laws may apply to their research conduct. Local authorities rarely oversee the conduct of research; however, investigators should recognize that local regulations relative to the conduct of their studies may exist. In addition to government regulations pertaining to the conduct of research, permission typically is required for the transport of animals across state or international boundaries see section 3.
Documentation may be required for transport or shipment across state lines, for receipt of shipment, and sometimes for intrastate transport.
Permits are typically required for injurious or invasive species. Permits are required to document that the laws http: The intent of these regulations is to prevent the introduction of exotic disease agents, as well as to address concerns associated with endangered or threatened species of animals. Guidelines for addressing importation of live and dead fish, as well as gametes, are found in Title 50 Wildlife and Fisheries Part 16 of the CFR http: The law prohibits the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines and addresses potential problems caused by the introduction of nonnative animal species.
Research involving living animals, including fishes, must be based on experimental designs and animal care practices that can lead to scientifically valid results. Fishes are acutely sensitive to stress e. Accordingly, unless the experimental objectives require actions or conditions designed to test responses to stress, fishes should be maintained, handled, and tested under conditions that will not create such responses.
The Guidelines addresses the conduct of scientific research and focuses on established facts and the processes through which knowledge is developed. Research plans submitted to IACUCs should address animal care considerations, in addition to the details of research goals, objectives, and procedures.
The extent to which IACUCs incorporate personal values concerning animal welfare into their institutional guidelines is determined within each institution. The study of stress has focused on how animals have evolved physiological and behavioral mechanisms to address the challenges of changing environmental conditions and then to permit them to maintain homeostasis, or self-sustaining balance. The set of environmental variables conditions best suited for the well-being of each species typically encompasses a specific range for each factor and species see section 5.
Accordingly, when fishes are maintained within these ranges, a state of homeostatic balance is expected. Deviations from homeostasis characterize a stress response. While many definitions for stress have been proposed, we employ the definition of Schreck and Schreck et al. While allostasis is generally adaptive because it helps keep animals alive in the face of a short-term stressor s , it can be maladaptive over the long term and have negative consequences on growth, reproduction, and immunological health Schreck Accordingly, investigators need to understand those factors that might cause stress in their experimental animal s , the potential consequences, and how stress might be avoided by optimizing experimental conditions.
Each investigator and the IACUC should understand the conditions that minimize stress for the species in question. Extrapolation between taxa, however, must be avoided because differences exist among species Schreck The factors and range of conditions appropriate for fishes typically will deviate substantially from those used for mammals. Assumptions and perceptions based on experiences with mammals, especially primates, must not be extrapolated to fishes; however, investigators should be aware of APHIS policy i.
Stress responses are elicited after a fish detects a threat. Recognizing and understanding the three stages of stress is important. Each warrants consideration in the design of animal care protocols:. While the nature of stress is insidious, it also tends to be polymorphic, changing with time and taking different forms in different species at different stages in their lives. It is rarely feasible to measure changes in blood hormones to assess primary or secondary stress; therefore, investigators are advised to design experiments that avoid stress unless the purposes of the research require measurements of stress indicators.
Important indicators of a lack of stress are persistence of normal behavioral activity and propensity to feed and grow. Careful experimental design and planning can ensure study results that are not confounded by unrecognized or unmeasured stress. Unless the aim of the research is to establish optimal conditions for holding particular species of fish in captivity, such as captive propagation of endangered species, it is generally advisable for investigators to select species for experiments whose optimal holding conditions are known and can be recreated in the laboratory.
Specific factors to consider include 1 choice of species, 2 history of the animals under study, 3 water chemistry, 4 water flow, 5 water temperature, 6 light conditions and cycles, 7 bottom substrate, 8 noise and other physical stimuli, 9 shelter, 10 stocking density, and 11 size of tank relative to body size and activity rate. Other variables, such as fish density or the presence or absence of tank covers, may be important. Species that are known as reliable laboratory models e.
In addition to the aforementioned factors that are associated with long-term maintenance, additional considerations apply when fishes are handled or subjected to various experimental manipulations. Readers may obtain additional information concerning stress and stress responses in fishes from several reviews Bonga ; Barton Pain is fundamentally a psychological state of the conscious mind. This scientific organization explains that a definition of pain must avoid connecting it to an external eliciting stimulus Wall ; IASP Scientific difficulty arises when the definition is applied to animals for which the psychological experience of the conscious mind cannot be objectively discerned.
Scientists attempting to determine whether fish feel pain have thus developed surrogate metrics which, to date, have shortcomings. Overall, the weight of evidence in the fish species studied indicates that the experience of pain in mammals is not experienced in fish. To better understand the scientific merits of research articles on welfare-related aspects of aquatic animal physiology, some biases and limitations have recently been elucidated Rose ; Browman and Skiftesvik ; Rose et al.
Much of the confusion associated with pain research in animals, including fishes, is caused by a failure to distinguish nociception from the psychological event that must be present if pain is to occur Vierck ; Rose and Woodbury Nociception is the neural process of encoding noxious stimuli, with responses that may be autonomic or behavioral IASP While nociceptive responses often, but not always, precede pain in humans, they must be translated in specific regions of the conscious brain into a psychological experience in order to be classified and felt as pain.
Nociception is a common, but not a universal, characteristic of vertebrates, however. For example, elasmobranch species studied appear to lack nociceptive capabilities Coggeshall et al. Since publication of the Guidelines Use of Fishes in Research Committee , a number of studies, principally by Sneddon and coworkers, have suggested that the pain experience was demonstrated by Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss e.
These experimentally induced behaviors have been challenged by Rose , , and Rose et al. Studies relying on endpoints of avoidance or escape from noxious stimuli as indicators of pain Dunlop et al. Several studies of nociception in bony fishes have suggested some differences between teleost fishes and mammals that have bearing on the perception of pain.
Anatomical and physiological studies have reported the occurrence of A-delta and C fiber nociceptor afferents in the trigeminal nerve of Rainbow Trout Sneddon et al. Although these studies revealed that A-delta type fibers were fairly numerous, only a small number of C fibers were found in the trigeminal nerve of Rainbow Trout Sneddon et al. Anatomic observations relative to these two species led Braithwaite to claim support for the plausibility of pain in teleosts, yet the rare occurrence of C fibers contraindicates the feasibility of pain-induced suffering, or even intense, prolonged nociception in fish.
With elasmobranchs, in particular sharks and rays, neither A-delta nor C fibers have been found Coggeshall et al. Elasmobranchs also appear to lack the spinal cord lamina I, a principal zone for synapsis of nociceptive afferent connections Cameron et al. Other experimental and field descriptive studies have contraindicated the pain experience in some fishes.
Resumption of feeding and apparent normal activity have occurred immediately, or within minutes of recovery from anesthesia following surgery Narnaware et al. Biotelemetry studies have documented rapid recovery of normal behavior following transmitter implantation, as well as long-term survival and normal behavior Wagner and Stevens ; Newby et al. Studies of catch-and-release angling have consistently demonstrated the resumption of normal activity immediately after release, or at most within relatively short times of release.
Many instances of fish being recaught within minutes of release have been reported Schill et al. There is little debate that exposure to noxious stimuli, regardless of it being experienced as pain or not, is stressful from a behavioral standpoint; therefore, exposures to noxious stimuli should be minimized.
While firm in believing that research on live fishes is acceptable and essential, the UFR Committee recognizes the sometimes difficult task facing IACUCs that must develop institutional guidelines that are both functional for, and accepted by, their constituents. All subjects of experimental procedures must be protected from potential physiological or behavioral disturbances and harm in order for the results to be accepted as representative of the population from which the experimental subjects were drawn.
The factors that are detrimental to fish welfare have been well delineated by valid, objective indicators of physiological and behavioral well-being. Scientific literature should inform an IACUC in developing specific policies, recommendations, or regulations concerning aquatic animal welfare. The use of sedatives or anesthetics to restrain fishes is often essential to prevent harm to the animals, particularly where invasive procedures are involved see section 7.
Sedation or anesthesia may also be important from the perspective of investigator safety, especially when handling large or otherwise hazardous subjects. Procedures described in the Guidelines provide additional information see section 7. Sedatives and Related Chemicals. Whether fishes are being collected live for investigations, preserved for study in a museum, or processed to obtain data needed for fisheries management, investigators should observe and pass on to students and employees a strict ethic of habitat conservation, and respectful and humane treatment of the animals in sampling, handling, and euthanasia ASIH et al.
The UFR Committee recognizes that currently no field collection techniques exist that will cause zero mortality events in the population being sampled.
Research goals will generally dictate appropriate sampling methods. Given a set of alternative sampling methods and collecting gears, investigators can select the ones which cause the minimum levels of habitat disturbance and mortality in target and non-target fish populations.
Gathering large series of animals from breeding aggregations should be avoided unless required to meet study objectives. Use of collecting techniques that damage habitat unnecessarily should also be avoided or performed to the minimum extent necessary to achieve study or sampling objectives. For example, trawling or other forms of dragged or towed gears is essential for documenting fish diversity or monitoring the health of fish populations; however, such gears can cause extensive disturbance to substrates, macrophytes, or other important structural elements of fish habitat.
Sampling equipment and strategies can be designed to minimize incidental capture of non-target species. Collecting gears, such as gill nets deployed for nonlethal sampling, should be checked frequently to avoid unnecessary mortality. Regardless of the purpose of the experiment—whether to manipulate abundance or to study behavior, reproductive potential, or survivability—mortalities within the population and disturbance to habitat should be kept to the minimum amount that the investigator along with the IACUC determines to be acceptable.
The reader should note that some content in section 5 is not restricted to field activities but can extend to laboratory situations as well. Research with fishes frequently requires capturing wild specimens from the field, whether for field-based studies—such as data recording, marking, and relocation—or for laboratory studies of live or preserved specimens.
Permits are issued by natural resource agencies of state, provincial, federal, and tribal entities in the United States and Canada see section 3. Permit applications generally request information about the research to be conducted, sampling methods, the areas to be sampled, and number and disposition of fish specimens to be collected.
For a listing of state permitting agencies in the United States, as well as other useful information about collection of fishes, see Walsh and Meador Collection of fishes on federal lands often requires a separate special use permit obtainable from the agency responsible for managing the land.
The local, state, federal, and tribal authorities that issue collecting permits generally require collectors to notify them of the specific locations, dates, and proposed methods of sampling.
Collection of fishes by federal personnel on private lands requires a permit approving access from the landowner. Generally, the questions being explored and the study design itself dictate the number of specimens required for an investigation. Acquiring fishes for study generally involves the taking of a very small portion of the population or community present at a location. The general principle applied when sampling fishes is to take the fewest animals necessary to reliably address the hypothesis see section 2.
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