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I was told to avoid sugar but have never tried agave. We ate together all the time and the allergies imparted all kinds of complications. The dough was the texture of brownie batter. If you have a convection oven, set on convect. Hi Beks, They are best if eaten the first day, but will last days in the fridge. This was also my first try making dough.
The Best Gluten-Free Pizza Crust + Sauce
Other than that, I followed the steps exactly as indicated in the recipe. Just wanted to add my experience: It more than appeased my gfree self and my gfree 14, 12 and 8 year old. I used Namaste flour blend in place of the individual flours it contains the same ones , and actually had fun proofing yeast and all that jazz.
All that to say, thank you for the recipe! Millet actually contains a Glutinous protein in it called Panicin.
You will find them in wheat, corn, sorghum, barley, rye, millet, oats, teff, and rice. Rice is the only one listed that contains less than 5ppm, which is the acceptable amount for people with gluten allergies or intolerance as stated by celiac. This post is misleading. The Celiac Foundation states gluten less than 20ppm is safe for celiac. For food to be certified gluten free by the Celiac Foundation it only needs to be less than 20ppm. The measurements worked perfectly for me, the only problem was I needed to make more!
Perhaps you missed a step or added too much flour. What happened to your dough? Also, do you weigh your ingredients or use the simple measuring cup method? I have read and have learned through experience that it is better to weigh your ingredients when using gluten free flours, etc. I think next time will be a complete success once I remember the xanthan gum.
Hey, I also live in Canada and I just tried this recipe. I had the same problem with the end result being just powder and wonder if it is because I did not let the yeast grow or if I killed it. Regardless, all I did was add in another few cups of water to make the dough.
I ran into a similar problem. While the ingredients are similar. They are not the same and the proportions may be quite different. It is edible but not what I would call the best GF pizza recipe. I ate two pieces and through the rest away. It was like cardboard. I just looked for a recipe on the Krusteaz website and they use less flour and more liquid and yeast.
As you said, the first time follow the recipe to a T. Thanks for the recipe, if I try again, I will use the GF flour blend just as you list. This one worked out on the first try though and it was really yummy. Hi, I believe the sugar is probably there to feed the yeast to make the crust rise, though gluten free recipes do not rise nearly as much as standard wheat flour.
I live in Canada as well and have made this recipe many times with great success. We used Namaste Perfect flour blend. I live in AZ so I used a little extra olive oil, some herbs, and a tad more water for a better consistency and baked it for shorter time. The whole family loved it! Made this recipe as is in Canada with ingredients purchased in Canada with no issue. I made the gf flour as per the recipe rather than use my own and used cups not the scale and it was amazing. I too live in Canada and the addition of all ingredients makes a dough that is perfect in texture.
You should try again, you must have missed something. Write it down and try baking it, you might end up with a good surprise…. I did try it as it says, but reduced the water. It is definitely worth trying again. It came out soft and flexible. The you have the best GF crust ever.
Hi made this crust and it turned out very good. I hope many others enjoy it as well. How fun to see the traditions carried on… the gluten free is important, but the most important thing is the time spent together each week!! Love family nights, love my family… and we adopt and love you two as well ;-. Love this comment, Shelly! Thanks for saying hi. Does anyone know if the GF flour blend is like an all purpose flour?
I just recently found out my 4 year old has to eat GF and I would like to know the cheapest and tastiest all purpose flour blend to use when cooking for her. Tiffany, I would use a blend of the flours suggested in the post, but you could also sub a GF flour blend, such as King Arthur. I hope your baby gets all better with his new foods! Which should we be using here?
Pillsbury makes a GF all purpose flour that tastes great and measured out cup for cup as regular flour. Makes a great crispy tempura batter for Chinese style food too!!! Loved this gluten free crust! This one looks lovely, and the ingredients list is mercifully short. I love the gif! Or does it specifically need to be the blend you use? I use brown rice flour in the same proportion mentioned and substitute the sundry flours with bobs redmill gluten free flour since it already has most of those sundry flours within it.
It seems to mostly dissipate with baking, but not completely to me. To Laura — agreed! However, I will try the one Dana recommends in this recipe sometime to compare, as well.
The garbanzo bean is way too overpowering. Especially when I would try to make pancakes.. Sometimes it has a sweetened taste to it but I was just curious. To me, I find it to be somewhat of a metallic taste. I have made cakes, pie crusts, dumplings, biscuits, pancakes, gravies, etc, all that my family and I have loved and no strange taste. Heather, have you used the BC GF rice flour blend for pizza crust?
I love your pizza. They look so yummy! Thanks for the recipe! The whole family loved it. Thanks for such a simple and delicious recipe! This was the first time I ever made a pizza crust from scratch. It was very tasty. However, it was a little thick in the middle for a crunchy crust. Next time I am going to get a roller to roll it thinner in the center and maybe put more sauce.
Thank you for your recipe. Love to hear it! AND so much cheaper and better than takeout. Glad you liked it! Just have to confirm that this is the best gluten free pizza crust!
Definitely our go-to crust from now on. Glad this worked so well for you! Being new to gluten-free, I found way too many things that just taste yucky. It came out really nice! I was worried about the prebake, that it might dry out, yet it stayed moist and flexible. My toppings buried any hidden flavors in the dough. It was great, and we will definitely make it again!
I love your crust! It was so simple to make and even new to gluten free husband who is a very picky eater approved!
I have tried several other pizza crust recipes, but this tops them all. Thank you so much for sharing. I am going to try making it again soon and doing the first bake, then cooling and freezing the crust. This way I can pull from the freezer on a busy school night and thaw, top and bake.
I had tried to switch my old glutenful, favourite pizza dough recipe into a gluten free version that ended in a pretty disappointing fail.
I made it for the first time last night, and, as someone else mentioned, I had a bit of a thicker crust in the middle that ended up being a bit mushy, but with slight tweaking really just making it evenly thin, and also pre-baking the full 30 min to help dry it out , I think this recipe will become a staple in our kitchen as well! I made it exactly as the recipe called for, the flour blend is pretty basic and I had all the ingredients on hand.
I loved her comment as well: Thanks for sharing your experience with it and I hope it does become a staple in your kitchen. Our entire family is going gluten free for the sake of our autistic son, adhd son, add daughter, son with allergies, daughter with asthma, son with digestive problems.
We have been trying so many gluten free recipes lately and found them all to be failures. The family loved it!!!!! Thanks so much for sharing. By the way, our family has a tradition of making homemade pizza every Sunday night as well. So glad to be able to continue this.
All of the comments persuaded me to give this a go. We were not disappointed. Thanks so much for such a quick, simple and forgiving gluten-free vegan pizza crust recipe! Gluten-free breads can be so unforgiving and complicated, bland and crumbly …not this one.
I literally just used whatever was leftover in my pantry and fridge. I brushed it with olive oil, topped with garlic, onion, spinach, and fresh cashew cheese cashews, garlic, nutritional yeast, salt, water. I respond well to millet and GF oat flour. Can you tell me what proportion of these flours you used? Or did you omit the tapioca etc….?? I just want to thank you for posting this!
As a Northerner who grew up eating the best NY pies, it hit me hard when i had to stop eating gluten and give up things i loved most.
Any true New York pizza lover can agree with me when i say that part is essential to good pizza!!! And not all pizza are foldworthy! Is there a hotline to call if get stuck, nervous and I have questions? LOL I will let you know how it turns out!!!! If it gets stuck which it might on the pan , simply gently lift it off with a spatula. The crust was horrible! It crumbled like crazy and tasted like cardboard. I also found this crumbly.
I am baking it now and will see the end result, although at this point it does not look promising. I made this pizza crust and have to say that it was some of the best I have had in a long, long time.
So excited to have a good crust alternative! I mixed an extra batch of the flours with salt, baking powder, and extra sugar, so all I have to do is add the proofed yeast and olive oil and I have my dough. I will try the approach of brushing with olive oil next time.
So easy and so delicious! The family members who can eat gluten even said it was delicious! Thank you so much for sharing!! You are my hero. I want to try this again! Misty, the dough will never rise due to lack of gluten for yeast to feed on. If the dough is too gooey, add some more flour until it has the consistency you desire.
Misty — If you are not gluten sensitive as much as you are wheat sensitive, try it with spelt flour? It sounds to me your yeast was old or the water you used to activate it was either too hot or too cold. A few things you need to know when using yeast you may not know: First your yeast needs to be fresh and alive. Also, when you have it at home, especially if you rarely use yeast in your cooking, it MUST be stored in the fridge!
Otherwise, the yeast will become ineffective much sooner. Second, the water used to activate the yeast must be no hotter than degrees Fahrenheit. The other important thing to know is that yeast feeds on sugars! It never has and never will feed on gluten. These things are important, or your dough will never rise. Anyhow, hope this helps! This is the BEST pizza crust — gluten free or not.
I was diagnosed with an allergy to dairy last year and my boyfriend was great about cooking dairy free for me.
When he was recently diagnosed with a gluten allergy — I decided to return the favor. So I finally had to leave a comment since the other comments are what swayed me to give this a shot.
The directions are foolproof and the crust is seriously amazing!!!! I realize I just admitted that we have eaten pizza once a week for a month. I guess it just proves how great this recipe is. Made your pizza last night for my husband who had to go gluten free this year. He loved it, I had enough dough to make two fairly big pizzas so he took one for his lunch today.
Hes delighted with himself. I cant thank you enough. Trying this recipe tonight. Side note, love the guestbook font!! I also have arrowroot flour. Would that be a better sub than potato flour? Could I also use Nutritional Yeast Flakes instead of instant dry yeast? The potato flour is likely to make your dough like a brick.
Last night I was short on tapioca and tried half arrowroot and half tapioca. It ended up runny and brownbrowned too quickly. Sorry… the comment editor was acting up! The result was still tasty, but was my least favorite iteration of this usually delightful crust. I personally think the tapioca is crucial!
I did tonight with this crust! Thanks for an awesome and super easy recipe! Katie, love to hear it! I used raw honey instead.
I am new to Gluten-free baking and I really enjoyed it. Mine was a crunchy thin crust. I also added cheese and garlic powder to the the top of the extra dough and made garlic bread sticks. I am a LAZY cook and this is a dream for simplicity. I used the flour I mix ahead of time and keep around as a standard GF replacement.
For anyone who is interested, the crust gets fine results with a flour made this way: Plus the xanthan gum, I just keep it separate from my premixed flour. I barely even chewed this it was so good! The dough puffed up so nicely and it smelled like… normal pizza! Thank you so much for this recipe! My bubby cant havw gluten but the rest of us can so last night i made one gf pizza and one regular. Excited to try this. I only have brown rice flour. You should be able to find quality pepperoni there.
Wheat is typically included as a filler in most processed foods like salami, ham and cheese to name a few. They typically state if they are gluten free or not. With regard to cheese, anything that is individually sliced is really bad as they coat it in flour to make it not stick to the wrapping.
I use Don for sliced meat, they usually have a wide range including ham, chicken, etc. The salami will usually state if it is gluten free. They are slightly more expensive, but worth the peace of mind. Thankyou for the pizza ideas. We will have to try this recipe tonight! I also futz with recipes on the first go so instead of xanthan gum I threw in ground flaxseed, added a bit more oil and a touch of butter and substituted honey for sugar.
And, actually, am more likely to try doing the same thing with our own family favorite recipe first. Friends who will honor the allergies — and still eat together with you — are gems.
That must have made the transition easier! I made this recipe tonight and it really is the best gluten free pizza I have ever made or eaten! Thank you so much for this easy to use recipe. It was helpful to be able to refer to the pictures. I like that there is a printable version, too. Deedee, I think that will work but no guarantees as the two have different textures and tastes. But give it a try and let me know how it goes!! After learning my daughter was gluten intolerant 4 years ago, I have continued to search for a likable pizza crust.
Friday night is pizza night at our house and though we sometimes have pizza delivered, it is more fun to make it. Last week I tried a new crust recipe that caused my 6 year old daughter to eat most of it before asking if it had gluten in it because it was actually nasty! I found this recipe. My husband said it was the first time in 4 years that he loved pizza night! Hmm, it may have just been that you needed to bake it longer. Also, did you make any ingredient substitutions?
Thumbs up from the whole family, thank you: I did make flour substitutions but the crust is still delicious. Way better than any of the almond meal ones I have tried and far better than the box mix I had been using. I have tried many different wheat free pizza crust mixes and recipes, and yours is by far the BEST.
My son is 5 and allergic to wheat and egg and dairy and so many other things and many wheat free crusts calls for eggs or sometimes milk! My three year old has severe food allergies. I cannot wait to try this…thank you for this lovely post! We will try this soon! I typically use arrowroot. I can pick up tapioca starch at the store today if that is recommended…but I have a bulk supply of arrowroot at the present!
The pizza crusts are so expensive at the store. I have just discovered Chebe cheese bread and have made that in pizza crust form. I came across this pizza crust recipe and decided to try it tonight. I did follow it exactly and the dough was great to spread in the pizza pan. I put on a glove and coated it with olive oil then spread the dough easily. The crust came out a good consistency and crispy on the edges. Very nice pizza dough consistency.
I think next time I will add shredded cheese to the dough and see what happens. Thanks it was very good. Thank you very much for sharing this recipe. It came out just perfect, and my kids are gobbling it up as I write. So easy to make and tasty! Decided to make this at the last minute tonight, but had everything but the white rice flour so I used chick pea flour instead.
It was delicious and rustic because of the texture of the chick pea flour. But anxious to try it with white rice flour as well.
We just tried recipe today with my family and it came out great. Best GF pizza I have ever had. My sister who is not GF also enjoyed it. Followed the recipe exactly for tonight, but may add some spice into the dough next time, like oregano. It seemed to bake well but it seemed really dark after the pre bake time was up and the dough had lots of cracks.
The pizza looked so good as I pulled it out of the oven. The taste was great but it was extremely dry. I will for sure make it again though with the rice and tapioca flours — that will probably make a big difference in how well it absorbs the liquid and how moist the final product is. This gluten free pizza crust had a very good flavor but my crust was tough and I could barely cut it. I am wondering if I spread it out too thin and then cooked it too long for a thin crust.
What did I do wrong? Made it exactly to the recipe — same flour mix etc. What could Joyce and I have done wrong? Perhaps it had to do with the brand or freshness of the flours you used? Did you bake it a bit too long? Also, I found that a pizza stone will make it crispier, but a metal pan will keep it softer. Hope that helps in some way! Well I made this again — did everything exactly the same except reduced the length of time of the first bake to 10 minutes and it worked perfectly!
Must be my oven. My dough turned out looking like pancake batter. I followed all the steps and this is my first time making dough. Was I supposed to proof it first or something? Otherwise it tastes great. This was also my first try making dough. Try the recommendation I listed — it works like a charm. Hello, I tried your recipe and it worked great. Good texture — easy to roll — and baking paper over the top works a treat to squash the dough out. I flattened the crust out quite thin and found that it cooked great with the topping on for about 15 minutes in a fan bake oven without needing to pre cook the base.
Have also pre cooked another base and stored in the freezer for later. My mum is gluten free and I wanted to try this for her: Any suggestions how to cope before I attempt this?
Would adding more flour be all that I have to do? Man, bring on the pizza for the wheat and gluten free amongst us! I made this tonight and now I have pizza I can enjoy with no disappointments.
Thank you for sharing a great recipe. As a personal experiment, I went meat free except some fish like salmon , casein free dairy and gluten free about 3 months ago. I used your recipe as a guideline and went with 1 cup glutinous white rice flour, 1 cup tapioca flour, 1 cup quinoa flour since we had a big bag of it. I sprinkled garlic powder into the dough.
I also used your pizza sauce recommendation. Overall, I really like both the crust and the sauce. It was quite pliable. Really liked the sauce recipe… simple yet tasty. I intended to experiment by adding some fish sauce to the tomato paste, but, forgot. My non-GF husband approves. But it came out drier than either of us would have liked. Now, I DID forget the xanthan gum…maybe this kept the crust from expanding and staying more moist in the middle.
Next round I will remember the xanthan gum but ALSO reduce the pre-bake time I did a full 30 minutes and brush the crust with olive oil before putting on the toppings. Overall, I was pleasantly surprised by how good it tastes. My husband and I both have had to go gluten free recently. As pizza was a weekly staple in our house, it has been really hard to go without: We made your dough today and it was delicious! We used rice flour, corn flour and tapioca flour. So many gluten recipes have a million ingredients and crazy obscure ingredients.
By far the BEST gf dough ever!! My non-gf boyfriend and friends actually ask me to make this over traditional crust. Make a mean version with garlic butter instead of sauce, Italian sausage, sliced red bell pepper and red onion, a sprinkle of red pepper flakes, fresh mozzarella and grated parm.
Thanks for the recipe!! This was my first time making a GF pizza crust and this recipe was so good! We all enjoyed it much more than the traditional wheat crust I use to make. Thank you so much for sharing! I used King Arthur Gluten free flour and the crust turned out great! I also forgot xanthum gum but it was still good. Next time I am going to try using honey instead of sugar. It even smelled great as it was baking. Thanks for a great recipe.
Made this last night for the first time. It totally exceeded my expectations. Definitely Adding this to my arsenal of GF recipes I am just starting to build up. Looking forward to running through the rest of your recipe box for more great ideas and recipes. Its Been A Long Time! Perhaps try subbing another GF flour, such as oat or buckwheat?
Has anyone tried to freeze this recipe before cooking? Like as a dough. Just wondering if it would still work out? This IS the best GF pizza crust recipe. My only alteration was I used my own favorite flour mix brand. This pizza crust tastes like the real deal.. My son and I can finally enjoy pizza again!! My son is allergic to Rice and corn. I know I can substitute the brown rice flour for oat flour but is it a 1: I made this for lunch today.
Before I learned I had to go gluten free, I made the best pizza crust ever, so I was searching for a gf version. This was my first gluten free pizza. This had a really good flavor, however it was so tough and chewy that it hurt my teeth…. I made this recipe tonight. I adjusted a few things as the dough seemed a bit flat tasting. Since my doc just told me to go gluten-free, and I feel so much better there are only a couple things I miss. I look forward to trying this recipe!
But may a suggest an edit? Debi to answer your question, yes it does take that long to bake. I have frozen GF pizza crusts before.
Follow recipe, prebake as recommended, then remove from oven. La société occidentale considère la religion comme un choix personnel, et l'activité religieuse ou spirituelle n'est pas une obligation [ 12 ]. Comparativement dans la société islamique, la foi prime sur le matérialisme, et l' islam sert de base pour le code civil, pénal, et le code de conduite personnel des croyants, dans une situation comparable à celle qui existait dans la société occidentale du Moyen Âge [ 3 ].
La fréquentation des églises et des lieux et culte a fortement baissé entre et Dans la société occidentale, l'homme est perçu comme quelqu'un de compétitif, qui fait preuve d'autonomie et d'assurance. La femme est perçue comme nourricière, émotive, passive, fragile, attirante et harmonieuse. Ces définitions sont insufflées dès l'enfance par les jouets et la publicité [ 26 ] , [ 27 ]. Dans la société occidentale, le choix de l'habillement est une technique pour décliner son identité - son genre et son statut social.
Les habits de la femme améliorent son apparence, tandis que les habits pour hommes sont avant tout fonctionnels. Les représentations des hommes, et surtout des femmes, dans les objets de consommation tels que les médias, les jouets et la publicité influencent la société.
Dans la société occidentale le corps est considéré comme un objet sous le contrôle de l'intelligence humaine. Être en surpoids, pas propre ou mal habillé est considéré comme un manque de contrôle de son corps et d'auto-discipline. Les femmes sont particulièrement concernées, et la volonté de se présenter dans un corps attirant est fortement associé à la féminité. Dans la publicité de Wonderbra de , une femme porte un habit noir fortement décolleté, qui laisse entrevoir le haut de ses seins. Dans les relations homme-femme, l'accent est mis sur le couple: Le sentiment amoureux est généralement le point de départ d'une telle relation et le mariage est une déclaration publique et une reconnaissance sociétale d'une telle relation.
Les corps humains sont souvent utilisés pour décorer les magazines occidentaux. Les magazines féminins contiennent une grande quantité de photos de femmes jeunes, minces, bronzées, aux longues jambes et à la poitrine généreuse. Ces images sont intériorisées par la société et deviennent un standard de référence à partir duquel les femmes jugent leur propre corps - ainsi qu'un idéal de féminité, souvent impossible à atteindre [ 30 ]. L'examen du contenu révèle que les magazines féminins sont davantage consacrés à la décoration corporelle, la mode, la beauté et le bien-être que les magazines masculins, ce qui est déclaré en toute franchise dans la page de couverture [ 31 ].
L'interview des femmes photographiées dans les magazines révèlent la nature coopérative du travail du modèle et du photographe, où les modèles travaillent elles-mêmes à l'amélioration de leur apparence en vue de s'approcher de l'idéal de beauté propre à la société occidentale [ 31 ]. Des études ont démontré que les représentations d'hommes sont de plus en plus musclées et les figures contemporaines des années ont une quantité de muscles supérieure à celle de n'importe quel être humain [ 30 ].
Les hommes sont plus souvent impliqués dans des scènes de violence. Le rôle des femmes est le plus souvent de l'aide et du soutien, et les femmes crient plus souvent [ 31 ]. La représentation des corps humains dans les jeux vidéo est caractérisée par une hypersexualisation des divas aux formes irréalistes telles que Lara Croft dans Tomb Raider , Lybia dans State of Emergency ou Tina dans Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball [ 31 ].
Les femmes sont représentées avec des seins surdimensionnés, une taille anormalement étroite, elles sont représentées peu vêtues, souvent en tops ou en habits de bain qui laissent entrevoir le contour de leurs seins voluptueux. Les hommes sont souvent représentés extrêmement musclés avec des épaules extrêmement larges et peu vêtus.
Fist of the Lotus [ 31 ]. Depuis , la publicité tout-public joue avec l'attirance sexuelle. Des acteurs — hommes ou femmes — plus ou moins dévêtus, parfois en sous-vêtements, adoptent des postures suggestives dans des publicités pour des parfums, des automobiles, des desserts ou des habits. Des images qui vingt ans auparavant auraient été rejetées par la société parce que jugées trop explicites, exploiteuses et sexistes [ 32 ].
La beauté corporelle est enseignée comme une valeur fondamentale pour les filles, alors qu'on apprend aux garçons à être forts, courageux, autonomes et combatifs. Dans cette société, fragilité, passivité, docilité, sensualité, coquetterie et séduction sont considérés comme des traits de caractère de la femme, et la mode met en avant la sensualité et la séduction [ 34 ]. Les habits des hommes sont caractérisés par une facilité de mouvements: Les habits pour femme visent la séduction et la retenue et sont conçus de manière à attirer l'attention sur leur corps et les rendre plus attractives: Dans les codes de la mode occidentale, la virilité est signalée par la cravate, le pantalon, des matières rugueuses et solides, des couleurs sombres et des habits amples.
La féminité est signalée par les jupes, les décolletés, des habits serrés - en particulier à la taille, des habits brillants ou transparents et des hauts talons et des couleurs claires.
L'immaturité des enfants est signalée par l'absence de formes de découpes lâches, des couleurs vives, des dessins de bande dessinée et des souliers plats [ 36 ]. La minceur est un critère de beauté et l'habillement s'accompagne d'améliorations de l'apparence, de moulage du corps et entretien de la forme et de la jeunesse [ 26 ] , [ 35 ].
Le travail du corps nécessaire pour devenir un modèle de beauté inclus régime , activité physique et cosmétique et est reconnu comme un signe d'engagement et d'auto-discipline [ 34 ]. La définition culturelle de l'idéal de la féminité est influencée par les célébrités: Dans cette société axée sur l'économie et le progrès, les modes font évoluer continuellement les habitudes vestimentaires et font fonctionner l'économie.
Boucles d'oreilles, poudres parfumées, cosmétique, habits de soie et de dentelles étaient portés par les hommes comme par les femmes. Les habits des hommes mettaient en avant la carrure des épaules et étaient parfois munis d'une braguette - rabat de toile brodée et saillante à la hauteur du pénis.
Les habits des femmes mettaient en avant les seins et le bassin avec des décolletés profonds, robes larges et corsets [ 37 ]. C'est dès que l'habit masculin devient résolument sombre et terne.
Marqué par l' éthique du travail: Celle-ci était alors le seul fait des femmes, qui devenaient la vitrine du statut social de leur mari. Les différences d'habillement, très marquées à cette époque, se sont par la suite estompées, avec l'apparition du tailleur - un complet pour femme qui travaille, le jeans et les chemises pour femme, les gilets et les chaussures colorées de la mode teddy boys pour homme [ 37 ].
Le fait d'être partiellement ou totalement déshabillé n'est pas uniformément toléré entre toutes les sociétés occidentales.
Dans la Grèce antique, les hommes pratiquaient la gymnastique nus. Dans certaines régions des États-Unis, le fait de montrer les seins en public est puni par la loi, y compris quand c'est pour allaiter , et le fait de montrer le mamelon est illégal [ 38 ]. En Europe du Nord, la sauna se pratique ordinairement nu et le fait de se baigner nu dans un lac ou une rivière est considéré comme normal.
Le nudisme et la baignade nue sont courants en Croatie, en France et au Royaume-Uni. Le nu est un sujet classique dans les arts, et il est toléré de poser nu pour des photos ou des peintures [ 39 ] , [ 40 ]. Dans la société occidentale, les seins sont symbole de beauté et de féminité.
Si le sillon entre les seins est mis en avant et admiré [ 41 ] , le fait de montrer le mamelon est illégal et indécent [ 38 ]. En , Janet Jackson avait provoqué un scandale en montrant un téton lors d'un concert diffusé à la télévision [ 42 ].
Ce style d'habillement occidental s'exporte vers d'autres cultures par l'intermédiaire de la presse et la télévision. Au Nigeria, ce style est à la fois à la mode, et jugé indécent par la population locale [ 44 ]. Dans la société occidentale, l'accent est mis sur le couple: Le sentiment amoureux est généralement le point de départ d'une telle relation, et l'avis de la famille et des proches ne pèse pas lourd dans la décision des partenaires d'établir une telle relation.
Le mariage est une déclaration publique et une reconnaissance sociétale d'une telle relation. Le mariage joue un rôle normatif, et permet de protéger légalement la durabilité de la relation nécessaire à l'éducation des enfants nés de cette union [ 45 ] , [ 46 ] , [ 47 ].
Le parcours de vie occidental est souvent une suite de relations de couple plus ou moins durables, et la décision de mariage est prise juste après la conception du premier enfant.
Les lois de certains pays d'occident autorisent et reconnaissent une relation de couple entre deux personnes du même sexe [ 45 ] , [ 46 ] , [ 47 ]. Anciennement, l'amour a toujours été pris en considération, mais la décision de mariage était prise par les parents, avant tout sur la base de critères économiques, politiques et de prestige. Considérant que si l'amour apparaît ensuite entre les époux, il va généralement augmenter avec le temps qui passe [ 48 ].
Dans la plupart des cultures, les enfants entrent immédiatement dans le marché du travail, aux côtés de leurs parents, contribuant alors à la situation économique et le confort de la famille. La société occidentale rejette le travail des enfants, et considère l'enfance comme une période de liberté vis-à-vis des responsabilités des adultes.
Les jeunes adultes sont alors encouragés à trouver eux-mêmes leur orientation sur le marché du travail, les parents font des suggestions, et la décision finale appartient à l'intéressé devenu adulte [ 48 ]. Le mouvement qui a démarré au milieu des années en occident, consiste à dissocier la sexualité de la procréation et du mariage, en revendiquant une sexualité libérée du cadre institutionnel du mariage. Les progrès de la médecine ont également permis la sexualité sans enfants et les enfants sans sexualité.
Une fois les trois sujets dissociés, la sexualité n'a alors plus pour finalité que la recherche de plaisir individuel. Les limites fixées par les normes sociales et les institutions ne visent alors plus qu'à respecter les consciences individuelles, promouvoir la tolérance et l'autonomie et condamner la violence. Entre et , la contraception des personnes non mariées, l'avortement, l'homosexualité entre adultes consentants ont été autorisés.
Les lois relatives au divorce et à la censure dans les ouvrages écrits ont également été relaxées. Les femmes, les lesbiennes et les gays ont demandé à être reconnus par les lois nationales [ 32 ].
L' éducation sexuelle fait partie des programmes scolaires, l' homosexualité n'est plus punie par la loi. La contraception a permis aux gens plus de liberté dans leur comportement sexuel, les protégeant des maladies sexuellement transmissibles et des grossesses non désirées, rendant ainsi obsolètes les contraintes anciennes d'abstinence et de virginité.
Le marché du cinéma, du livre et des jeux s'est intéressé à ces sujets qui étaient jusqu'alors tabous [ 24 ]. À la fin des années , les femmes ont commencé à faire valoir leurs droits.
Le mouvement féministe , ou mouvement de libération de la femme, a protesté que l'acquisition de l'égalité des droits politiques et juridiques n'avait pas abouti: Le mouvement féministe a également obtenu que les femmes aient un contrôle sur leur propre corps, en autorisant l' avortement et la contraception [ 24 ]. La christianisation de l' empire romain d'Occident conduit progressivement à une relativisation de la civilisation occidentale antique au profit de valeurs venues d'Orient.
Après plus de ans de la société féodale, théocratique et patriarcale du Moyen Âge, la société occidentale a connu un retour aux sources, basés sur les écrits antiques des grecs et des romains. Des auteurs, par l'intermédiaire de leurs ouvrages, ont discrédité la société du Moyen Âge et mis en avant une société moderne, humaniste, démocratique et séculaire. La civilisation hellénique est l'ancêtre de la société occidentale [ 3 ]. Une polis avait typiquement moins de hommes qui légiféraient pour l'ensemble de sa population: L'appartenance à la polis était transmise par le sang, de père en fils [ 50 ].
Les premières polis étaient des institutions religieuses, dans lesquelles les citoyens sollicitaient l'aide des divinités. Puis graduellement les citoyens se sont éloignés des dieux dans leur gouvernements et basés leurs lois non plus sur des règles sacrées mais sur le produit de l'intelligence de la communauté, basé sur l'idée que les lois ne proviennent pas des dieux mais des humains [ 50 ].
Cette attitude rationnelle n'a cependant pas fait disparaître la religion, mais l'a placé cote-à-cote avec la connaissance. La vie politique hellénique était entachée par des luttes entre partis politiques, de la démagogie et des guerres intervilles [ 50 ]. Les Hellènes sont à l'origine des notions de société civile et de politique. Pour eux, l'État était une communauté de citoyens libres et égaux qui créaient des règles pour le bien de tous.
I looked on the Vegan South Africa site http: Does anybody else know? My doctor believes it could be due to gluten intollerant. I live in Canada and apparently here to test for CD is really expensive and I would have to pay for it myself because it is not covered. So my Doctor suggested that I cut Gluten out of my diet for a month and see if my problems go away. Do you suggest this is something I do or is it really important that I get the test done? It sure is going to be a struggle….
Has your doctor told you how much they would cost? There are usually two stages of testing, first a blood test and then a biopsy. There might even be a local contact for you to ask. I hope this helps. Will you want to do that? Will having a definite diagnosis one way or the other make a difference? Thank you so much for all the info. And I was thinking, if the Gluten free diet solves my problems, then I guess it does not really matter wether I am gluten intollerant or have CD…either way the outcome is a gluten free diet.
I know my usual beers are out of the question. Once again I Thank you for all your help.. Was wondering, roughly how long does it take for the symptoms to go away after you start a gf diet? Does going on a Gluten-free diet take out all the Barley? My daughter is allergic to barley and that is in pretty much everything.
Everytime I look up Barley-free foods, the search results come up with Gluten-Free foods. What should I do? If your daughter needs a gluten-free diet, then she should not eat barley, because barley has gluten in it. But is she allergic to barley, or to gluten? Certainly, a gluten free diet would eliminate all the barley from her diet, but if she can eat wheat, it would be a shame to remove that from her diet as well. Wheat flour is even more common than barley!
I have been having digestive troubles for years. Swelling of my stomach, alternating diarreah and constipation, cramps and gas. I am always tired. My doctor has advised me to go on a gluten free diet to see if that will make me feel better before they test my intestines. Do these symptoms sound like they would be symptoms of a gluten allergy?
Your symptoms could be symptoms of gluten intolerance; but they might also be symptoms of something else. I know that people do get very different symptoms with coeliac disease…. However, do bear in mind that if you stop eating gluten and if gluten is the problem for you , your small intestine might start healing before the test.
You might then get a false result. It is recommended that you should be eating gluten for a while before taking the test, so that they can get a good result. So you might have to start eating gluten again to get a proper diagnosis. That so depends on the relish… what are the ingredients? If you could tell us the brand name and manufacturer, we might be able to find out from them. It is very hard to find foods that are Gluten free and Dairy free.
I live in the U. I to had this challenge when I started eating gluten free. It cuts out grains, bread etc. Eat veggies, lean proteins and fats. It has worked out great for me. Pure butter should be naturally gluten free, being just made of milk and maybe a little salt.
I have an employee that has to have a gluten free diet. This has started my interest in this dieting lifestyle. One of the biggest advantages to this dieting is that it is very hard for him to gain a lot of fat weight.
He tells me that this is common. I find it very difficult, I just cannot believe that I will have to eat like this forever. I am a very active person, studying, working, leaving my place early in the morning and coming home late in the evening.
Where are you based? And what kinds of things do you like to have for lunch? You mentioned fast food — obviously sandwiches are going to be difficult, but there are options, depending on what you like. And some places are very helpful, marking things up on the menu etc. So let us know what you like, and maybe someone will have some advice to share! I love lucky charms cereal but have stopped eating them because of my new allergens. My doctor wants me to get a skin test done which I will.
I have been eating a lot of white rice I eat fruits and a lot of chicken but not fried. I have went out and bought Canola oil and some gluten free foods but I just need to know what other types of meats I can eat also is processed meats and cheeses not good for the gluten free diet? I have been suffering with seborrheic Dermatitis for 3 months. It is even now very difficult for me to find something to eat and will be even worse if this test comes back positive.
It is possible to be a coeliac and a vegetarian! Do you eat dairy products? They would provide good protein and calcium. Lentils and other pulses are also good sources of protein.
All fruits and vegetables are gluten free, and several grains. The Coeliac society here in the UK advises that all cheese is gluten free except for some soft cheeses which have added wheat fibre. Meat, too, is naturally gluten free, though once it gets processed, you do need to be careful.
Sausages, burgers, meatballs etc often — even usually, here in the UK — contain gluten. Breaded ham obviously does too…. We just got done reading a book that said gluten and wheat may upset some of his disorders and make them worse. I was just wondering if you have any advice on how to make this transformation an easy one as he is still young, defiant and is used to a gluten filled diet. Desperately seaking help with this.
I have heard that this change in diet might help — and there are stories out there on the internet that suggest it has helped at least some people — but I can see that switching his food might be difficult for both of you. What are the foods that he is happy to eat? Do please let us know what he will eat, because there might be a good alternative we could suggest — and do let us know how it goes!
I have been getting bad stomach cramps and pains, bad abdominal pains and cramps, sore heads, reflux and just started getting problems with my left war unrelated I think. I recently got bloods taken and she did get me tested for crohns family history of it and cancers in the area and celiac. He said the celiac came back negative but levels in my liver were off. I was out for my mothers bday dinner last night to prezzo.
I had bruschetta and pizza. Not even 5 mins after I was pretty much ready to explode! Was so scared I was honna be sick that we actually had to sit at the table an extra 5 mins just so I could see if it would settle. My mum said I should stop eatin wheat and gluten and see what happens. Does this actually sound like a good idea? It sounds horrid for you. Did she say what the liver levels being off meant? You just might get lucky! It normally takes a couple weeks for me to even get to see a doctor at my GP but I think I could maybe get them to do a call back which could be just as useful instead of taking more time off work for an appt.
Oh what the liver results meant. I have been having allergy problems which they believe may be related to diet. I want to try a gluten free diet and want to clarify a couple of things. It is flour wheat, rye, etc and not all starches. For example are potatoes okay?
It looks like rice noodles should be fine as long as there is no wheat. No oatmeal — right? But rice is okay?? I make almost everything from scratch because I do low sodium and low fat recipes. So all natural fruits, veggies, seafood and meats are okay?? Your advice would be appreciated. Potatoes are OK for a gluten free diet as long as there is no gluten added during processing. For example, some chips fries are coated in wheat flour before being fried to make them crispier.
All natural fruits, veg, seafood and meats are OK — again, provided no gluten-containing flours are used in preparation or processing. If you were told to be both wheat-free and gluten-free, then you should indeed avoid foods that contain either.
The thing is, that some other grains also contain gluten, so you should avoid barley and rye as well as wheat if you want to be gluten-free. In addition, you might want to steer clear of oats: I think it is usually advised to avoid oats until your intestines have healed, and then to try only small amounts of gluten-free oats at a time. Some food is gluten-free but not wheat-free, as sometimes manufacturers remove the gluten from wheat before producing the food.
Some food is wheat-free but not gluten-free if it has rye or barley in, for example. If you want to be both wheat-free and gluten-free, then you will need to avoid wheat as well as other gluten-containing grains such as rye and barley. How horrid for you… I hope they get to the bottom of it soon. It does seem to be taking a long time! You should know that if you are in fact a coeliac, that going gluten free should heal your intestine over time, with the result that they would no longer be able to test via biopsy to see if you do have coeliac disease.
However, some people think this is a reasonable trade-off for feeling healthier; only you can make that call! But it is possible to love food and still eat gluten free — it just takes a bit more effort, and the recognition that some food items may be gone forever….
Hi, I just came across your blog. Great info I must say. His problem is that whenever he has a certain type of bread, cookie, pastry or type cheese within 4 to 4 and half hours he has to run to the toilet no matter where we are…he is running and after 2 or so times his stomah feels awful. Do you think he may have Cd?
Is it wsie to get him to see a specialiist and maybe get a blood test? Hello Lucy, I found your site after searching and reading on Wheat free and Gluten free diets.
I have IBS chronic constipation and bloating. I have been tested for Coeliac and allergies to wheat and do not have either. I do have IBS and it is worse when I eat dairy and sweets. Emotionally I felt better less anxiety and depression. Can you HELP me? It does sound like he should be tested. Are you in the UK or US? If in the UK, then the first step would be to see your GP, who can refer him to the right specialist. I hope you can persuade him… please let us know.
Have you been watching the Embarrassing Bodies programme? That says it so clearly: It is difficult and embarrassing to talk about these things, but the doctors will have heard it all before! I found this site: You could explore this one: Could you use fruit sugar or agave nectar in place of processed sugar?