DIGESTIVE SYSTEM-BIRD-MAMMAL-REPTILE-COMPARISON

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Gastrointestinal tract
These include the esophagus , pylorus of the stomach, distal duodenum , ascending colon , descending colon and anal canal. The pet food industry is a huge money making machine, and unfortunately, we Americans are led astray by their advertising, their lack of information of contents and origin, and the lack of regulation of food processing. C coli strains comprise most isolates from pigs, causing first watery, then inflammatory diarrheal disease. Specifically, when the beak closes, the drop's leading edge moves toward the mouth, while the trailing edge stays put. Currently I am feeding my dogs raw chicken leg and thigh quarters. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Tractus digestorius mouth to anus , canalis alimentarius esophagus to large intestine , canalis gastrointestinales stomach to large intestine.

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Dog's Digestive System

On the roof of pharynx near the junction of two jaws a pair of openings is called Eustachian apertures. Pharynx is not sharply demarcated from the buccal cavity. It receives the openings of esophagus and the glottis. Esophagus is a narrow tube and straight extends through the neck. Mucous glands are present. Oesophagus is a bng and narrow tube.

It has thick walls. Mucous glands are absent. Oesophagus is a long thin walled tube. It is clearly marked off from the pharynx as well as stomach. The oesophagus is dilated into a thin-walled sac the crop. It secrete pigeon milk in both sexes and used to feed the young birds. The wall of oesophagus is produced into the cardiac stomach to form cardiac valve.

Stomach is a sac- like structure. Its anterior part is cardiac stomach and posterior part is pyloric stomach. At the end of pyloric stomach a small constriction is present. It possesses a pyloric sphincter. Stomach is divided into a glandular proventriculus and posterior muscular gizzard. Gizzard acts like grinding apparatus. Stomach is divisible into cardiac, fundic and pyloric parts. Pyloric stomach contains pyloric valve.

Intestine is differentiated into duodenum and ileum. Intestine very long and very much coiled because is a herbivorous animal Same structures are present. But the bile duct and pancreatic ducts open separately into the proximal and distal ends of the duodenum respectively. A single rectal caecum is present.

An ilio-colic valve is present at the junction of the small intestine and large intestine or colon. At the junction of these portions, a spiral shaped vermi form appendix is present. At the regular intervals of the colon shows pocket-like pouches - 'Haustra'. Colon shows longitudinal muscle folds taeniae'. Cellulose enzyme is produced.

Cloaca is common opening for digestive'and urinogenital ducts. It is divided into coprodaeum,urodaeum, and proctodaeum. Cloaca is large and divided into the same parts. Except for the turtles, limitation of activity in reptiles cannot be explained on the basis of heart circulation. An explanation may lie in the chemistry of the blood.

The blood of reptiles has less hemoglobin and thus carries less oxygen than that of mammals. The form of the lungs and the methods of irrigating them may also influence activity by affecting the efficiency of gas exchange. In snakes the lungs are simple saclike structures having small pockets, or alveoli, in the walls. In the lungs of all crocodiles and many lizards and turtles, the surface area is increased by the development of partitions that, in turn, have alveoli.

Because exchange of respiratory gases takes place across surfaces, an increase of the ratio of surface area to volume leads to an increase in respiratory efficiency. In this regard the lungs of snakes are not as effective as the lungs of crocodiles. The elaboration of the internal surface of lungs in reptiles is simple, however, compared with that reached by mammalian lungs, with their enormous number of very fine alveoli.

Most reptiles breathe by changing the volume of the body cavity. By contractions of the muscles moving the ribs, the volume of the body cavity is increased, creating a negative pressure, which is restored to atmospheric level by air rushing into the lungs.

By contraction of body muscles, the volume of the body cavity is reduced, forcing air out of the lungs. This system applies to all modern reptiles except turtles , which, because of the fusion of the ribs with a rigid shell, are unable to breathe by this means; they do use the same mechanical principle of changing pressure in the body cavity, however.

Contraction of two flank muscles enlarges the body cavity, causing inspiration. Contraction of two other muscles, coincident with relaxation of the first two, forces the viscera upward against the lungs, causing exhalation. The rate of respiration , like so many physiological activities of reptiles, is highly variable, depending in part upon the temperature of the environment and in part upon the emotional state of the animal.

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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Circulatory system Modern reptiles do not have the capacity for the rapid sustained activity found in birds and mammals. Previous page Skull and dentition. Page 8 of Next page Digestive and urogenital systems. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Reptile s, of which there are few endemic families, have mainly Old World affinities.

Those most likely to be seen include lizards of the agamid family, skinks a family of lizards characterized by smooth overlapping scales , crocodiles, and tortoises.

Endemic reptiles include girdle-tailed…. Although amphibian gastrulation is considerably modified in comparison with that in animals with oligolecithal eggs e. Thank you for your time! Did the lab culture the pathogen? Did they give a possible cause? Personally, I think it is alway best to feed an animal food they are designed to eat. Doing this usually solves a host of problems. Thank you for your reply! I am going to take your recipe to my vet and talk to her about switching the diet…I agree that providing a more natural what she is designed to eat has got to be healthier than pumping her full of medicine and prescription food!

Sounds like a good idea but brace yourself for negative feedback. Many veterinarians are against homemade dog foods and have very little training in nutrition. Ed, I definitely agree with your comment about vets and homemade food!

But in all fairness to vets at least mine, whom I love they are NOT typically trained in nutrition and food. They also are a bit eager in my experience to prescribe antibiotics without knowing the underlying cause.

But I also find this to be true of human physicians as well. Feeding and caring for dogs for me is as important as feeding and caring for a child. My dogs ARE my children. And that includes their treats as well. The pet food industry is a huge money making machine, and unfortunately, we Americans are led astray by their advertising, their lack of information of contents and origin, and the lack of regulation of food processing.

I am stepping down. But I hope more dog owners will find your site and heed your comments. It is up to US the owners and care takers to get the best for our dogs. My best friend is a 13 year old female Rottie. When she does throw up, It comes up with very little effort or distress. Sometimes its undigested food, sometimes its white stuff…. Everything else about her seems fine. Gums are red, eyes are fine, personality is normal. She was, for a few weeks feed bread, by neighbor who was dog sitting…He meant no harm…but…bread is bad for dogs digestive systems, yes?

Hi Grace, I came in search of a possible solution to help my pup gain some weight and stumbled upon your question. The symptoms of your gal match the symptoms of the condition that my 10 month old pup is afflicted with. Another form of it is neurological. The nerves that tell the muscles of the esophagus to move food down cease to do so.

I have to liquify my pups food and feed him on stairs so that gravity can help get his food into his stomach, but otherwise he leads a very normal life. I started feeding her boiled chicken and rice and my once very fussy eater gobbled it up.

Blood is gone, stools are becoming more solid. I want to try one of your diets — not sure if it should be raw or cooked; I want to stick to chicken at least at first because of the colitis.

Also, what about switching between chicken and beef — can you do that, or do you have to do the 24 hour fast? Switching between homemade dog food recipes does not require a fast. I just posted a chicken and rice dog food recipe that may work for you.

Any other advice to make her more healthy and have more normal stools would be appreciated. Linda PS Sadie says thanks for the delicious recipe — no more fussy eating!

I feed him a liquid diet in an upright position 4 times per day and he gets LOTS of exercise. Thank you very much for your time and possible advice. You may want to try the chicken and rice dog food recipe.

Pass this through a blender and it should be ok. Dogs metabolize fat well. High carbohydrate content in kibble seem to be more responsible for weight gain. I have just start my research about raw foods.

I have a 5 year old Great Pyrenees who is having difficulties having bowel movements. I have taken him to the vet multiple times and after many enemas and laxatives he seemed fine. However, they have told us to start putting metamucil on his food regularly as he would not eat the high fiber diet we started putting him on. This worked for a couple of weeks, now he is back to the way he was backed up and we have to give him more laxatives. Someone mentioned to me that raw food may help with his digestion.

Poor boy is in pain. Is the raw food diet good for this sort of thing? Thanks for your time. Have you ever tried probiotics to help his digestive tract? Yes, I started giving it to him when he started having problems. He is still having difficulties. I have been reading more about the raw food diet and I am becoming more nervous about it. I read how if your not balancing the meals appropriately then you can cause more problems.

Its so hard to tell what is legit. I will keep researching before I switch over. If I find anything I will also update you. If you are nervous about feeding raw dog food then just feed him cooked. Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe. Your dog will love either and both are very nutritious.

This is my first time on your website and I love that easy recipe with the eggshell and all! Now I put the used eggshell in my stale bread, cracker mix for the birds as they need it for digestion but I never thught you could do that for dogs. Thanks for letting other animal lovers know about the positive benefits of a natural food diet for our beloved pets. I mean really, if the commercial dog food is all that great and healthy then why does it say NOT fit for human consumption?

Hmmm, now I have an issue with that! Treat our furry critters as we want to be treated also! Thank you so much and my 3 APBT just love their natural food fare! They whine like your 2 didin the video but they are so healthy and happy and just full of energy. Yes they love fish especially salmon. What a life they have! God Bless you and yours.

I have an 8 month old Cavachon. She started having diarrhea here and there about 6 weeks ago. We had her poop tested at the vet but no parasites. She had been eating Diamond Puppy. We switched to chicken and rice and diarrhea got better. Interesting note, on chicken and rice, she no longer ate her poop. Whenever we tried to put her back on Diamond Puppy, diarrhea would come back.

So, back to chicken and rice. During that time, she ate part of a yard ornament and was given meds to make her vomit. After that, she had diarrhea even staying on chicken and rice. The vet gave her antidiarrheal meds for 10 days and it finally went away.

Meanwhile, she was still on only chicken and rice. After several days with nodiarrhea, I tried to give her a little Diamond Puppy again mixed in with chicken and rice and it started to come back again.

I came across your cooked dog food recipe. I ordered Dinovite and Licochops. Before making the full recipe, I gave her a little Dinovite in her chicken and rice for the past 3 days.

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