Medieval cuisine

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Meals All prepared for you and delivered to your door frozen. My co-worker is using Jenny Craig but it was just to cost prohibitive for me. Naturally Slim is based on not what you eat but when and how you eat and you eat your own real food and got real results. In a time when famine was commonplace and social hierarchies were often brutally enforced, food was an important marker of social status in a way that has no equivalent today in most developed countries. Nutrisystem is perfect for this reason as I don't have to count calories — it's all done online for me. Porridges were also made of every type of grain and could be served as desserts or dishes for the sick, if boiled in milk or almond milk and sweetened with sugar. Their service helped me significantly a few years ago.

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Breakfast patterns have a smaller role in daily intake than post-breakfast meals. Restricting what you eat to a certain time every day sets your body on a schedule. Research shows that trying to delay this window can take multiple days before your body adapts. This may explain why splitting up three meals into six can be an adjustment for someone going on a diet.

Regular meal times also play a long-term role in body weight. Try to eat at the same time every day. You can keep healthy, high-satiety snacks like vegetables and cheese around to eat between meals to curb your appetite. In some cases of meal timing, switching when you eat bigger meals can make a difference. One study saw that obese women who ate more for breakfast than dinner lost more weight and had an improved metabolism.

One study found that mice who were exposed to light at night gained 50 percent more weight than mice who had truly dark nights. One study found that people who ate and slept out of their circadian rhythm had symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is the name for a combination of disorders that increase your risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

We often think of diet as the quality of the food we eat, but it really also includes when you eat. Overall, they ate about the same amount of calories per day as people who slept normally, but calories consumed after 8: If you exercise regularly and want to maintain lean mass, you may be interested in intermittent fasting IF.

IF is different from eating on a regular schedule, as you restrict your energy intake to certain time periods of the day. This study saw a decrease in fat mass and weight for people who practiced hour fasting with an eight-hour eating window along with resistance training. One study also suggests that IF works as an alternative to calorie restriction for weight loss in people with type 2 diabetes. Another study in mice found that IF had more benefits than permanent calorie restriction.

For example, if your last meal was at 11 p. But this method of weight loss on its own may not be as effective without exercise. But you can also address these concerns with proper nutrition and strength training. However, the honey -based drink became less common as a table beverage towards the end of the period and was eventually relegated to medicinal use.

This is partially true since mead bore great symbolic value at important occasions. When agreeing on treaties and other important affairs of state, mead was often presented as a ceremonial gift. It was also common at weddings and baptismal parties, though in limited quantity due to its high price.

In medieval Poland , mead had a status equivalent to that of imported luxuries, such as spices and wines. Plain milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, being reserved for the very young or elderly, and then usually as buttermilk or whey. Fresh milk was overall less common than other dairy products because of the lack of technology to keep it from spoiling. However, neither of these non-alcoholic social drinks were consumed in Europe before the late 16th and early 17th century.

Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice. According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down. Unlike water or beer, which were considered cold and moist, consumption of wine in moderation especially red wine was, among other things, believed to aid digestion, generate good blood and brighten the mood.

The first pressing was made into the finest and most expensive wines which were reserved for the upper classes. The second and third pressings were subsequently of lower quality and alcohol content. Common folk usually had to settle for a cheap white or rosé from a second or even third pressing, meaning that it could be consumed in quite generous amounts without leading to heavy intoxication. For the poorest or the most pious , watered-down vinegar similar to Ancient Roman posca would often be the only available choice.

The aging of high quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in an even more expensive end product. Judging from the advice given in many medieval documents on how to salvage wine that bore signs of going bad, preservation must have been a widespread problem.

Even if vinegar was a common ingredient, there was only so much of it that could be used. In the 14th century cookbook Le Viandier there are several methods for salvaging spoiling wine; making sure that the wine barrels are always topped up or adding a mixture of dried and boiled white grape seeds with the ash of dried and burnt lees of white wine were both effective bactericides , even if the chemical processes were not understood at the time.

Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome. Spiced wines were usually made by mixing an ordinary red wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger , cardamom , pepper , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cloves and sugar. These would be contained in small bags which were either steeped in wine or had liquid poured over them to produce hypocras and claré.

By the 14th century, bagged spice mixes could be bought ready-made from spice merchants. While wine was the most common table beverage in much of Europe, this was not the case in the northern regions where grapes were not cultivated. Those who could afford it drank imported wine, but even for nobility in these areas it was common to drink beer or ale , particularly towards the end of the Middle Ages. In England , the Low Countries , northern Germany , Poland and Scandinavia , beer was consumed on a daily basis by people of all social classes and age groups.

For most medieval Europeans, it was a humble brew compared with common southern drinks and cooking ingredients, such as wine, lemons and olive oil. Even comparatively exotic products like camel 's milk and gazelle meat generally received more positive attention in medical texts.

Beer was just an acceptable alternative and was assigned various negative qualities. In , the Sienese physician Aldobrandino described beer in the following way:. But from whichever it is made, whether from oats, barley or wheat, it harms the head and the stomach, it causes bad breath and ruins the teeth , it fills the stomach with bad fumes, and as a result anyone who drinks it along with wine becomes drunk quickly; but it does have the property of facilitating urination and makes one's flesh white and smooth.

The intoxicating effect of beer was believed to last longer than that of wine, but it was also admitted that it did not create the "false thirst" associated with wine. Though less prominent than in the north, beer was consumed in northern France and the Italian mainland.

Perhaps as a consequence of the Norman conquest and the travelling of nobles between France and England, one French variant described in the 14th century cookbook Le Menagier de Paris was called godale most likely a direct borrowing from the English "good ale" and was made from barley and spelt , but without hops.

In England there were also the variants poset ale , made from hot milk and cold ale, and brakot or braggot , a spiced ale prepared much like hypocras. That hops could be used for flavoring beer had been known at least since Carolingian times, but was adopted gradually due to difficulties in establishing the appropriate proportions.

Before the widespread use of hops, gruit , a mix of various herbs , had been used. Gruit had the same preserving properties as hops, though less reliable depending on what herbs were in it, and the end result was much more variable. Another flavoring method was to increase the alcohol content, but this was more expensive and lent the beer the undesired characteristic of being a quick and heavy intoxicant. Hops may have been widely used in England in the tenth century; they were grown in Austria by and in Finland by , and possibly much earlier.

Before hops became popular as an ingredient, it was difficult to preserve this beverage for any time, and so, it was mostly consumed fresh. Quantities of beer consumed by medieval residents of Europe, as recorded in contemporary literature, far exceed intakes in the modern world.

For example, sailors in 16th century England and Denmark received a ration of 1 imperial gallon 4. Polish peasants consumed up to 3 litres 0. In the Early Middle Ages beer was primarily brewed in monasteries , and on a smaller scale in individual households. By the High Middle Ages breweries in the fledgling medieval towns of northern Germany began to take over production. Though most of the breweries were small family businesses that employed at most eight to ten people, regular production allowed for investment in better equipment and increased experimentation with new recipes and brewing techniques.

These operations later spread to the Netherlands in the 14th century, then to Flanders and Brabant , and reached England by the 15th century. Hopped beer became very popular in the last decades of the Late Middle Ages. When perfected as an ingredient, hops could make beer keep for six months or more, and facilitated extensive exports.

In turn, ale or beer was classified into "strong" and "small", the latter less intoxicating, regarded as a drink of temperate people, and suitable for consumption by children. As late as , John Locke stated that the only drink he considered suitable for children of all ages was small beer, while criticizing the apparently common practice among Englishmen of the time to give their children wine and strong alcohol.

By modern standards, the brewing process was relatively inefficient, but capable of producing quite strong alcohol when that was desired. One recent attempt to recreate medieval English "strong ale" using recipes and techniques of the era albeit with the use of modern yeast strains yielded a strongly alcoholic brew with original gravity of 1.

The ancient Greeks and Romans knew of the technique of distillation , but it was not practiced on a major scale in Europe until some time around the 12th century, when Arabic innovations in the field combined with water-cooled glass alembics were introduced. Distillation was believed by medieval scholars to produce the essence of the liquid being purified, and the term aqua vitae "water of life" was used as a generic term for all kinds of distillates.

Alcoholic distillates were also occasionally used to create dazzling, fire-breathing entremets a type of entertainment dish after a course by soaking a piece of cotton in spirits. It would then be placed in the mouth of the stuffed, cooked and occasionally redressed animals, and lit just before presenting the creation. Aqua vitae in its alcoholic forms was highly praised by medieval physicians. In Arnaldus of Villanova wrote that "[i]t prolongs good health, dissipates superfluous humours, reanimates the heart and maintains youth.

By the 13th century, Hausbrand literally "home-burnt" from gebrannter wein, brandwein ; "burnt [distilled] wine" was commonplace, marking the origin of brandy. Towards the end of the Late Middle Ages, the consumption of spirits became so ingrained even among the general population that restrictions on sales and production began to appear in the late 15th century.

In the city of Nuremberg issued restrictions on the selling of aquavit on Sundays and official holidays. Spices were among the most luxurious products available in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper , cinnamon and the cheaper alternative cassia , cumin , nutmeg , ginger and cloves.

They all had to be imported from plantations in Asia and Africa , which made them extremely expensive, and gave them social cachet such that pepper for example was hoarded, traded and conspicuously donated in the manner of gold bullion. The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1. Sugar , unlike today, was considered to be a type of spice due to its high cost and humoral qualities.

Even when a dish was dominated by a single flavor it was usually combined with another to produce a compound taste, for example parsley and cloves or pepper and ginger. Common herbs such as sage , mustard , and parsley were grown and used in cooking all over Europe, as were caraway , mint , dill and fennel.

Many of these plants grew throughout all of Europe or were cultivated in gardens, and were a cheaper alternative to exotic spices. Mustard was particularly popular with meat products and was described by Hildegard of Bingen — as poor man's food.

While locally grown herbs were less prestigious than spices, they were still used in upper-class food, but were then usually less prominent or included merely as coloring. Anise was used to flavor fish and chicken dishes, and its seeds were served as sugar-coated comfits. Surviving medieval recipes frequently call for flavoring with a number of sour, tart liquids.

Wine, verjuice the juice of unripe grapes or fruits vinegar and the juices of various fruits, especially those with tart flavors, were almost universal and a hallmark of late medieval cooking. In combination with sweeteners and spices, it produced a distinctive "pungeant, fruity" flavor.

Equally common, and used to complement the tanginess of these ingredients, were sweet almonds. They were used in a variety of ways: This last type of non-dairy milk product is probably the single most common ingredient in late medieval cooking and blended the aroma of spices and sour liquids with a mild taste and creamy texture. Salt was ubiquitous and indispensable in medieval cooking. Salting and drying was the most common form of food preservation and meant that fish and meat in particular were often heavily salted.

Many medieval recipes specifically warn against oversalting and there were recommendations for soaking certain products in water to get rid of excess salt. The richer the host, and the more prestigious the guest, the more elaborate would be the container in which it was served and the higher the quality and price of the salt. Wealthy guests were seated " above the salt ", while others sat "below the salt", where salt cellars were made of pewter, precious metals or other fine materials, often intricately decorated.

The rank of a diner also decided how finely ground and white the salt was. Salt for cooking, preservation or for use by common people was coarser; sea salt, or "bay salt", in particular, had more impurities, and was described in colors ranging from black to green. Expensive salt, on the other hand, looked like the standard commercial salt common today.

The term " dessert " comes from the Old French desservir , "to clear a table", literally "to un-serve", and originated during the Middle Ages. It would typically consist of dragées and mulled wine accompanied by aged cheese , and by the Late Middle Ages could also include fresh fruit covered in sugar, honey or syrup and boiled-down fruit pastes.

Sugar , from its first appearance in Europe, was viewed as much as a drug as a sweetener; its long-lived medieval reputation as an exotic luxury encouraged its appearance in elite contexts accompanying meats and other dishes that to modern taste are more naturally savoury.

There was a wide variety of fritters , crêpes with sugar, sweet custards and darioles , almond milk and eggs in a pastry shell that could also include fruit and sometimes even bone marrow or fish. Marzipan in many forms was well known in Italy and southern France by the s and is assumed to be of Arab origin.

The English chefs also had a penchant for using flower petals such as roses , violets , and elder flowers. An early form of quiche can be found in Forme of Cury , a 14th-century recipe collection, as a Torte de Bry with a cheese and egg yolk filling. The ever-present candied ginger, coriander , aniseed and other spices were referred to as épices de chambre "parlor spices" and were taken as digestibles at the end of a meal to "close" the stomach.

Just like Montpellier , Sicily was once famous for its comfits , nougat candy torrone , or turrón in Spanish and almond clusters confetti. From the south, the Arabs also brought the art of ice cream making that produced sorbet and several examples of sweet cakes and pastries; cassata alla Siciliana from Arabic qas'ah , the term for the terra cotta bowl with which it was shaped , made from marzipan, sponge cake and sweetened ricotta and cannoli alla Siciliana , originally cappelli di turchi "Turkish hats" , fried, chilled pastry tubes with a sweet cheese filling.

Research into medieval foodways was, until around , a much neglected field of study. Misconceptions and outright errors were common among historians, and are still present in as a part of the popular view of the Middle Ages as a backward, primitive and barbaric era. Medieval cookery was described as revolting due to the often unfamiliar combination of flavors, the perceived lack of vegetables and a liberal use of spices. The preservation techniques available at the time, although crude by today's standards, were perfectly adequate.

The astronomical cost and high prestige of spices, and thereby the reputation of the host, would have been effectively undone if wasted on cheap and poorly handled foods. The common method of grinding and mashing ingredients into pastes and the many potages and sauces has been used as an argument that most adults within the medieval nobility lost their teeth at an early age, and hence were forced to eat nothing but porridge, soup and ground-up meat.

The image of nobles gumming their way through multi-course meals of nothing but mush has lived side by side with the contradictory apparition of the "mob of uncouth louts disguised as noble lords who, when not actually hurling huge joints of greasy meat at one another across the banquet hall, are engaged in tearing at them with a perfectly healthy complement of incisors, canines, bicuspids and molars".

The numerous descriptions of banquets from the later Middle Ages concentrated on the pageantry of the event rather than the minutiae of the food, which was not the same for most banqueters as those choice mets served at the high table. Banquet dishes were apart from mainstream of cuisine, and have been described as "the outcome of grand banquets serving political ambition rather than gastronomy ; today as yesterday" by historian Maguelonne Toussant-Samat.

Cookbooks , or more specifically, recipe collections, compiled in the Middle Ages are among the most important historical sources for medieval cuisine.

The first cookbooks began to appear towards the end of the 13th century. The Liber de coquina , perhaps originating near Naples , and the Tractatus de modo preparandi have found a modern editor in Marianne Mulon, and a cookbook from Assisi found at Châlons-sur-Marne has been edited by Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat.

Few in a kitchen, at those times, would have been able to read, and working texts have a low survival rate. The recipes were often brief and did not give precise quantities. Cooking times and temperatures were seldom specified since accurate portable clocks were not available and since all cooking was done with fire. At best, cooking times could be specified as the time it took to say a certain number of prayers or how long it took to walk around a certain field. Professional cooks were taught their trade through apprenticeship and practical training, working their way up in the highly defined kitchen hierarchy.

A medieval cook employed in a large household would most likely have been able to plan and produce a meal without the help of recipes or written instruction.

Due to the generally good condition of surviving manuscripts it has been proposed by food historian Terence Scully that they were records of household practices intended for the wealthy and literate master of a household, such as the Ménagier de Paris from the late 14th century.

Over 70 collections of medieval recipes survive today, written in several major European languages. The repertory of housekeeping instructions laid down by manuscripts like the Ménagier de Paris also include many details of overseeing correct preparations in the kitchen.

Towards the onset of the early modern period , in , the Vatican librarian Bartolomeo Platina wrote De honesta voluptate et valetudine "On honourable pleasure and health" and the physician Iodocus Willich edited Apicius in Zurich in High-status exotic spices and rarities like ginger , pepper , cloves , sesame , citron leaves and "onions of Escalon" [] all appear in an eighth-century list of spices that the Carolingian cook should have at hand.

It was written by Vinidarius , whose excerpts of Apicius [] survive in an eighth century uncial manuscript. Vinidarius' own dates may not be much earlier. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Regional cuisines of medieval Europe. Food portal Middle Ages portal.

The Example of Europe" in Food in Change , pp. Peter Damian Die in ? A New Perspective on his Final Days". Archived from the original on Depending on the size and weight of the meat, the cook chose a heavy or light spit of various lengths.

Diversions of a Naturalist. Campbell, Mark Overton , Land, labour, and livestock: By comparison, the estimated population of Britain in , right before the Black Death , was only 5 million, and was a mere 3 million by ; see J. The Middle Ages , p. See also The Appetite and the Eye: Visual aspects of food and its presentation within their historic context. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Sicily" in Regional Cuisines of Medieval Europe , pp. Medieval Food — academic articles and videos The History Notes website tells the story about the food and drink in the Middle Ages Le Viandier de Taillevent — An online translation of the 14th century cookbook by James Prescott Medieval cookery books at the British Library — Learning resources on the medieval kitchen How to Cook Medieval — A guide on how to make medieval cuisine with modern ingredients The Forme of Cury — A late 14th-century English cookbook, available from Project Gutenberg Cariadoc's Miscellany — A collection of articles and recipes on medieval and Renaissance food MedievalCookery.

Medieval Academy of America. List of cuisines Lists of prepared foods. Retrieved from " https: Medieval cuisine Historical foods. Articles with French-language external links Pages with login required references or sources Featured articles. I am fighting them through my credit card company but please be aware of whatever traps they have in store for any of you. Hi Troy — Sorry to hear that that was your experience. It was actually a customer service rep who told me I could switch from the meal delivery to just the Turbo Shakes after my first month on the program to lock in the auto-delivery savings without having to commit to another month of food.

In any case, I hope you are able to get things resolved! I started the program today, January 1st. My resolution is to feel better about myself, but do it in a healthy way that had structure. How much and when I should be eating vegetables, and ideas on what to eat if you have to attend a social function or business based meeting that involves food. Thanks for posting a well written, and information overview of this program. I have three questions and maybe one is a question for a NS counselor… 1.

Or can tomatoes, cukes, etc. Also, plain or with some sort of dressing? How many turbo shakes can you have per week… and when can they be consumed? Thanks in advance …. Hi Tami — Thanks for stopping by and taking the time to comment! I always add extra veggies to my greens and have found the only thing you really need to watch out for is the salad dressing.

But for me, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc. I usually have my TurboShake midday — around 2: That said, I would definitely suggest using the Nutrisystem counseling service for full clarification, though — especially for questions 2 and 3. Best of luck if you decide to try the full program! I wanted to say that this article is nicely written and included almost all the vital info I needed.

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Hope it goes well again if you decide to give it another try. Have you found that Nutrisystem is a good way for keeping the weight off over the long term? How long do you really have to be on Nutrisystem before you starting seeing results?

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I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!! I have been on Nutrisystem for about 5 weeks now. I lost 15 pounds the first month and have been following it to a T. The food tastes fine and it is very easy to just grab something pop it in the microwave if necessary and go. I have been using My Fitness Pal to track my food and am eating about calories a day.

The first week was really tough and I had a hard time, but I stuck to it. Now I m satisfied and use to it. Planning on finishing up the second month and then on the 3rd month working in more home cooked meals and tracking to stay at the same calorie level.

Then will switch over to the auto ship of Turbo shakes for my 4th month. I have about 40 pounds to lose and feel like I am making some good headway with the Nutrisystem plan. Good job on the review, very well written. Wow, nice job Carolyn! Thanks for sharing your story, and best of luck with the rest of your diet.

I was very happy to find this website. Just wanted to thank for your time for this wonderful read, and inspirational review!! Hi Kelly — sorry to hear that! Have you tried connecting with the Nutrisystem counseling service? We had to take Nutrisystem program for 8 weeks because we got it at a discount thru our insurance company. My goal was to loose 30 lbs. At the end of the 8 weeks I had lost only 3 lbs. We did not care for the cardboard like food and did not get anywhere close to our goals.

This program obviously works for lots of folks, but not for us. We did go to the Naturally Slim program and in 8 weeks I lost Naturally Slim is based on not what you eat but when and how you eat and you eat your own real food and got real results. We will stay with our new habits learned with Naturally Slim and will not have any good words from our Nutrisystem experience. Hi John — thanks for sharing your experience. Thanks so much for sharing your story.

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The biggest issue would probably be the calorie count of your shake vs. Best of luck with your two weeks. I made some raspberry coffee and chilled it. Thought that might be a nice tip for someone else. Just finished day 1 of the Turbo Takeoff… I was down 2 lbs this morning!!! Yay… only 58 more lbs to go!!! I am so determined and my mind is in the right place to really do this, this time.. I am very excited for the results..

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Thanks for sharing, Lynn! Best of luck with reaching your goals! Very thorough review…thanks for making the decision easier!

I just signed up for my first order. Went with the Core, and really hoping to least a good 20 pounds. Just finished month 1. Does this stuff really work? Thanks for the comment, Heather…It definitely works when you follow the program correctly. Best of luck if you decide to try it! First, take the time to put the food on a plate like you would normally eat. Focus on the journey. Take the time to praise yourself for the positive change. I started on Nutrisystem exactly 2 months ago with a week lapse.

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How long in your experience would you say orders take to turn around? I am currently out of town but want to have the product arrive day if or day after returning so I can hit the ground running. Thanks ahead for any info. Hi Deb — Thanks for visiting. If I remember correctly, the last time I ordered it only took 3 or 4 days to get my shipment.

Thanks for the review! This was helpful in determining which program to start! I also appreciate your thoroughness and videos. I hope to get fit during my weight loss journey and obtain my goal by next year.

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