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What does cold do to subatomic biochemisty?


Last Fall in the Times September 16, , p. He was scheduled to have his bladder removed as well, but before they could operate, John died of sepsis caused by a bladder infection. And you have to fully understand that Food and Nutrition is the key to losing weight and being healthy. Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Seafood is always a good choice no matter what season we are in. It turns out spin-polarized currents can be used to apply torques to magnetic moments by direct transfer of spin angular momentum. Prickly Heat or Heat Rash , happens to adults and children when sweat becomes trapped under the skin.

Cold Thermogenesis 6: The Ancient Pathway


Neurons are created in special zones that contain stem cells , and then migrate through the tissue to reach their ultimate locations.

Once neurons have positioned themselves, their axons sprout and navigate through the brain, branching and extending as they go, until the tips reach their targets and form synaptic connections. In a number of parts of the nervous system, neurons and synapses are produced in excessive numbers during the early stages, and then the unneeded ones are pruned away. For vertebrates, the early stages of neural development are similar across all species.

The neural plate folds inward to form the neural groove , and then the lips that line the groove merge to enclose the neural tube , a hollow cord of cells with a fluid-filled ventricle at the center. At the front end, the ventricles and cord swell to form three vesicles that are the precursors of the forebrain , midbrain , and hindbrain. At the next stage, the forebrain splits into two vesicles called the telencephalon which will contain the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and related structures and the diencephalon which will contain the thalamus and hypothalamus.

At about the same time, the hindbrain splits into the metencephalon which will contain the cerebellum and pons and the myelencephalon which will contain the medulla oblongata. Each of these areas contains proliferative zones where neurons and glial cells are generated; the resulting cells then migrate, sometimes for long distances, to their final positions. Once a neuron is in place, it extends dendrites and an axon into the area around it.

Axons, because they commonly extend a great distance from the cell body and need to reach specific targets, grow in a particularly complex way. The tip of a growing axon consists of a blob of protoplasm called a growth cone , studded with chemical receptors. These receptors sense the local environment, causing the growth cone to be attracted or repelled by various cellular elements, and thus to be pulled in a particular direction at each point along its path.

The result of this pathfinding process is that the growth cone navigates through the brain until it reaches its destination area, where other chemical cues cause it to begin generating synapses.

Considering the entire brain, thousands of genes create products that influence axonal pathfinding. The synaptic network that finally emerges is only partly determined by genes, though. In many parts of the brain, axons initially "overgrow", and then are "pruned" by mechanisms that depend on neural activity. In the first stages of development, each axon from the retina is guided to the right general vicinity in the midbrain by chemical cues, but then branches very profusely and makes initial contact with a wide swath of midbrain neurons.

The retina, before birth, contains special mechanisms that cause it to generate waves of activity that originate spontaneously at a random point and then propagate slowly across the retinal layer.

These waves are useful because they cause neighboring neurons to be active at the same time; that is, they produce a neural activity pattern that contains information about the spatial arrangement of the neurons. This information is exploited in the midbrain by a mechanism that causes synapses to weaken, and eventually vanish, if activity in an axon is not followed by activity of the target cell. The result of this sophisticated process is a gradual tuning and tightening of the map, leaving it finally in its precise adult form.

Similar things happen in other brain areas: In some cases, as with the retina-midbrain system, activity patterns depend on mechanisms that operate only in the developing brain, and apparently exist solely to guide development. In humans and many other mammals, new neurons are created mainly before birth, and the infant brain contains substantially more neurons than the adult brain. The two areas for which adult neurogenesis is well established are the olfactory bulb, which is involved in the sense of smell, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where there is evidence that the new neurons play a role in storing newly acquired memories.

With these exceptions, however, the set of neurons that is present in early childhood is the set that is present for life. Glial cells are different: There has long been debate about whether the qualities of mind , personality, and intelligence can be attributed to heredity or to upbringing—this is the nature and nurture controversy.

Genes determine the general form of the brain, and genes determine how the brain reacts to experience. Experience, however, is required to refine the matrix of synaptic connections, which in its developed form contains far more information than the genome does. In some respects, all that matters is the presence or absence of experience during critical periods of development. The functions of the brain depend on the ability of neurons to transmit electrochemical signals to other cells, and their ability to respond appropriately to electrochemical signals received from other cells.

The electrical properties of neurons are controlled by a wide variety of biochemical and metabolic processes, most notably the interactions between neurotransmitters and receptors that take place at synapses.

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are released at synapses when an action potential activates them—neurotransmitters attach themselves to receptor molecules on the membrane of the synapse's target cell, and thereby alter the electrical or chemical properties of the receptor molecules. With few exceptions, each neuron in the brain releases the same chemical neurotransmitter, or combination of neurotransmitters, at all the synaptic connections it makes with other neurons; this rule is known as Dale's principle.

The great majority of psychoactive drugs exert their effects by altering specific neurotransmitter systems. This applies to drugs such as cannabinoids , nicotine , heroin, cocaine , alcohol, fluoxetine , chlorpromazine , and many others.

The two neurotransmitters that are used most widely in the vertebrate brain are glutamate , which almost always exerts excitatory effects on target neurons, and gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA , which is almost always inhibitory.

Neurons using these transmitters can be found in nearly every part of the brain. Some general anesthetics act by reducing the effects of glutamate; most tranquilizers exert their sedative effects by enhancing the effects of GABA.

There are dozens of other chemical neurotransmitters that are used in more limited areas of the brain, often areas dedicated to a particular function. Serotonin , for example—the primary target of antidepressant drugs and many dietary aids—comes exclusively from a small brainstem area called the raphe nuclei.

As a side effect of the electrochemical processes used by neurons for signaling, brain tissue generates electric fields when it is active. When large numbers of neurons show synchronized activity, the electric fields that they generate can be large enough to detect outside the skull, using electroencephalography EEG [71] or magnetoencephalography MEG.

EEG recordings, along with recordings made from electrodes implanted inside the brains of animals such as rats, show that the brain of a living animal is constantly active, even during sleep. In mammals, the cerebral cortex tends to show large slow delta waves during sleep, faster alpha waves when the animal is awake but inattentive, and chaotic-looking irregular activity when the animal is actively engaged in a task. During an epileptic seizure , the brain's inhibitory control mechanisms fail to function and electrical activity rises to pathological levels, producing EEG traces that show large wave and spike patterns not seen in a healthy brain.

Relating these population-level patterns to the computational functions of individual neurons is a major focus of current research in neurophysiology. All vertebrates have a blood—brain barrier that allows metabolism inside the brain to operate differently from metabolism in other parts of the body. Glial cells play a major role in brain metabolism by controlling the chemical composition of the fluid that surrounds neurons, including levels of ions and nutrients.

Brain tissue consumes a large amount of energy in proportion to its volume, so large brains place severe metabolic demands on animals. The need to limit body weight in order, for example, to fly, has apparently led to selection for a reduction of brain size in some species, such as bats.

Information from the sense organs is collected in the brain. There it is used to determine what actions the organism is to take. The brain processes the raw data to extract information about the structure of the environment. Next it combines the processed information with information about the current needs of the animal and with memory of past circumstances. Finally, on the basis of the results, it generates motor response patterns. These signal-processing tasks require intricate interplay between a variety of functional subsystems.

The function of the brain is to provide coherent control over the actions of an animal. A centralized brain allows groups of muscles to be co-activated in complex patterns; it also allows stimuli impinging on one part of the body to evoke responses in other parts, and it can prevent different parts of the body from acting at cross-purposes to each other.

The human brain is provided with information about light, sound, the chemical composition of the atmosphere, temperature, head orientation, limb position, the chemical composition of the bloodstream, and more. In other animals additional senses are present, such as the infrared heat-sense of snakes, the magnetic field sense of some birds, or the electric field sense of some types of fish.

Each sensory system begins with specialized receptor cells, [7] such as light-receptive neurons in the retina of the eye, or vibration-sensitive neurons in the cochlea of the ear.

The axons of sensory receptor cells travel into the spinal cord or brain, where they transmit their signals to a first-order sensory nucleus dedicated to one specific sensory modality.

This primary sensory nucleus sends information to higher-order sensory areas that are dedicated to the same modality.

Eventually, via a way-station in the thalamus , the signals are sent to the cerebral cortex, where they are processed to extract the relevant features, and integrated with signals coming from other sensory systems. Motor systems are areas of the brain that are involved in initiating body movements , that is, in activating muscles.

Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming.

The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control. The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing.

At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus , which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex , a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements.

Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. In addition to all of the above, the brain and spinal cord contain extensive circuitry to control the autonomic nervous system , which works by secreting hormones and by modulating the "smooth" muscles of the gut.

Many animals alternate between sleeping and waking in a daily cycle. Arousal and alertness are also modulated on a finer time scale by a network of brain areas. A key component of the arousal system is the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN , a tiny part of the hypothalamus located directly above the point at which the optic nerves from the two eyes cross.

The SCN contains the body's central biological clock. Neurons there show activity levels that rise and fall with a period of about 24 hours, circadian rhythms: The SCN continues to keep time even if it is excised from the brain and placed in a dish of warm nutrient solution, but it ordinarily receives input from the optic nerves, through the retinohypothalamic tract RHT , that allows daily light-dark cycles to calibrate the clock.

The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation , a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.

Sleep involves great changes in brain activity. There are two types of sleep: Three broad types of distinct brain activity patterns can be measured: During deep NREM sleep, also called slow wave sleep , activity in the cortex takes the form of large synchronized waves, whereas in the waking state it is noisy and desynchronized.

Levels of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin drop during slow wave sleep, and fall almost to zero during REM sleep; levels of acetylcholine show the reverse pattern. For any animal, survival requires maintaining a variety of parameters of bodily state within a limited range of variation: The basic principle that underlies homeostasis is negative feedback: In vertebrates, the part of the brain that plays the greatest role is the hypothalamus , a small region at the base of the forebrain whose size does not reflect its complexity or the importance of its function.

Some of these functions relate to arousal or to social interactions such as sexuality, aggression, or maternal behaviors; but many of them relate to homeostasis.

Several hypothalamic nuclei receive input from sensors located in the lining of blood vessels, conveying information about temperature, sodium level, glucose level, blood oxygen level, and other parameters. These hypothalamic nuclei send output signals to motor areas that can generate actions to rectify deficiencies. Some of the outputs also go to the pituitary gland , a tiny gland attached to the brain directly underneath the hypothalamus.

The pituitary gland secretes hormones into the bloodstream, where they circulate throughout the body and induce changes in cellular activity. The individual animals need to express survival-promoting behaviors, such as seeking food, water, shelter, and a mate. The motivational system works largely by a reward—punishment mechanism. When a particular behavior is followed by favorable consequences, the reward mechanism in the brain is activated, which induces structural changes inside the brain that cause the same behavior to be repeated later, whenever a similar situation arises.

Conversely, when a behavior is followed by unfavorable consequences, the brain's punishment mechanism is activated, inducing structural changes that cause the behavior to be suppressed when similar situations arise in the future. Most organisms studied to date utilize a reward—punishment mechanism: Rewards and punishments function by altering the relationship between the inputs that the basal ganglia receive and the decision-signals that are emitted. The reward mechanism is better understood than the punishment mechanism, because its role in drug abuse has caused it to be studied very intensively.

Research has shown that the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a central role: Almost all animals are capable of modifying their behavior as a result of experience—even the most primitive types of worms. Because behavior is driven by brain activity, changes in behavior must somehow correspond to changes inside the brain. Already in the late 19th century theorists like Santiago Ramón y Cajal argued that the most plausible explanation is that learning and memory are expressed as changes in the synaptic connections between neurons.

Neuroscientists currently distinguish several types of learning and memory that are implemented by the brain in distinct ways:. The field of neuroscience encompasses all approaches that seek to understand the brain and the rest of the nervous system.

The brain is also the most important organ studied in psychiatry , the branch of medicine that works to study, prevent, and treat mental disorders.

The oldest method of studying the brain is anatomical , and until the middle of the 20th century, much of the progress in neuroscience came from the development of better cell stains and better microscopes. Neuroanatomists study the large-scale structure of the brain as well as the microscopic structure of neurons and their components, especially synapses.

Among other tools, they employ a plethora of stains that reveal neural structure, chemistry, and connectivity. However, the patient stopped the diet—and a scan three months later showed that the tumor had returned. The ketogenic diet is one of the hottest topics on the Bottom Line Web site. If you think that the ketogenic diet might be right for you or a loved one, here's what you need to know—and how to find the experts who can help you get started Click here to read more Does the Ketogenic Diet Cure Cancer?

For more information, see Dr. Unfortunately, the same percentage of Americans are dying today from this diseases as they were over 30 years ago. In fact cancer has now surpassed heart disease as the number one cause of death for people under Notice how many immune boosters, direct cancer killers that cause apoptosis of cancer cells, or programmed cell death that Jerry and I used, and that Webster advises on www.

If a person with cancer uses natural methods instead of chemotherapy and radiation, the cure rates are significantly higher, since the body's immune system hasn't been compromised and can help fight the cancer, wherever it might be throughout the body.

Not all cancers can be cured, but studies have shown that most cancer patients live longer and have a better quality of life -- even if they do nothing -- than if they subject themselves to conventional medicine's overly-aggressive and mostly ineffective cancer treatments.

Better than doing nothing, though, I would do everything I could to modify my diet and lifestyle, and take supplements, herbs, enzymes and immune boosters. Rowen, killing malignant tumors is usually not difficult: To prevent cancer's reoccurrence, one must keep the immune system strong with diet, lifestyle, some not excessive exercise, nutritional supplementation, and especially, a positive mental attitude. HowTo" below For More Information: Leonard Coldwell interviews Liana Werner-Gray!

Lorraine Day healed herself of terminal cancer by diet http: Robert Rowen What if Big Pharma came across a synthetic compound that stopped cancer in its tracks?

And what if it was nontoxic as well? You'd hear about it before you could blink. Now suppose that researchers actually found a compound that did exactly that, but it was a natural compound that's likely in your refrigerator right now. You wouldn't hear even a whisper about it from the media. University of Missouri researchers found that a bioflavonoid, apigenin, inhibited the growth of highly malignant breast tumors. What's more, it also reduced expression of a key cancer gene.

Apigenin is in your refrigerator right now if you have celery, parsley, or a wide variety of other veggies, fruits, and spices. Here's how effective apigenin is. In this recent study, researchers implanted rodents with a particularly deadly breast tumor cell line.

The animals taking apigenin had slower tumor growth. And some even saw their tumors shrink. New cancer-feeding blood vessels shriveled, starving the malignant cells. Progestins are petrochemical synthetic versions, a "gift" of Pharma. Research has shown that they cause breast cancer.

This study mirrored another one last year which showed that rats fed the compound developed fewer tumors and a delay in tumor establishment. The study's co-author, Salman Hyder gave a sad commentary on today's horrible Pharma paradigm. He pointed out that since this is a compound that you can extract from plants not patentable we won't see industry putting a dime into research. And since its effects are not specific on any one cancer process, it's not likely that government funding agencies will help either.

I've written extensively about the wonders of bioflavonoids. The late Tom Lahey, who told me about luteolin in Advanced Memory Formula , also provided me with a wealth of information on bioflavonoid actions against cancer. Curcumin belongs to this family as does green tea, Seanol and resveratrol. I am observing innovative combinations of bioflavonoids having remarkable effects in a combined approach to cancer. In addition to the foods I've already mentioned, you'll find apigenin in apples, leeks, onions, broccoli, cherries, grapes, tomatoes, and tea.

Note that these plant foods reduce your risk of getting cancer in the first place. Other foods include basil, oregano, cilantro, tarragon, beans, and barley. You'll do very well to include such produce in your daily diet! Yours for better health and medical freedom, Robert J. Epub May 9. If you'd like to receive your own Second Opinion Health Alert, please sign up on our website: It's vital these substances heal cancer cells and leave normal cells untouched.

I've told you about some of my discoveries in the past. They include resveratrol, green tea, Alginol, and others.

But today I'm going to tell you about another plant that safely starves cancer cells as efficiently as a powerful chemo drug. In fact, it even works on pancreatic cancer cells, which are particularly difficult to kill. This plant is a common vegetable from Asia called "bitter melon. And it did so after just 72 hours of treatment!

In the past, I've told you about apoptosis. That's nature's way of dealing with wayward or old cells. They simply kill themselves. Bitter melon juice induced this programmed cell death along several different pathways. And even better, it also activated a pathway which knocks out the cancer cells' metabolism of glucose. In other words, it literally starved them of the sugar they need to survive. Do these lab-dish studies apply to living animals? University of Colorado researchers gave mice bitter melon at doses easily achievable in humans.

This level of effectiveness beat the most commonly used chemo drugs for this lethal cancer. The dose used in mice translates to 6 grams of powder for an average-sized adult 75 kg. Big Pharma is rushing to find patentable petrochemicals to achieve what God put into the bitter melon fruit. You don't need any fancy chemicals to treat cancer.

What's more, the actions of bitter melon may help diabetics as well. Researchers recently found that bitter melon ameliorates metabolic syndrome by its beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. Healing cancer must be multifocal. Eliminate dental infections and toxic dental materials, alkalinize your body, avoid chemical and heavy metal exposure, detoxify, forgive, oxidize the body with oxidation therapy, and give specific nutrients to throw a monkey wrench into cancer's peculiar metabolic pathways.

You can find bitter melon extract at most health food stores and online. Better yet find a grocery store many Asian markets that sells it, buy a lot and freeze it. Pregnant or lactating women probably shouldn't overdo this veggie. Science News, March 12, Box , Norcross, GA , or Readers are advised to consult with their own physician before implementing any health idea they read about, whether here or in any other publication.

For Cancer, along with Bitter Melon www. Avoid all sweeteners except a small amount of either steam-distilled stevia www. The reason you have to use even these safe sweeteners judiciously is that when your tongue tastes something sweet, it tells your pancreas to churn out insulin in preparation for sugar, and when comes, you get hypoglycemia low blood sugar, dizziness, weakness, etc.

And, surprisingly, I am in agreement with the mainstream. Cancer is a systemic disease, though currently treated conventionally as a local problem you carve out. Cells that degenerate into cancer have to make many genetic switches to "make it".

Even after a cell turns to cancer, the abnormal cell must evade your immune system, the last line of defense. A functioning immune system will pick off cancer cells before they pick you off. But cancer cells have learned to confuse your immune cells.

Cancer cells express a protein called CD47 in large amounts in their membranes. This protein tells your macrophages immune cells , "Do not eat me. Researchers in the lab of Irving Weissman at Stanford have treated mice with an antibody that blocks and hides the CD47 marker. It effectively hides the CD47 and calls on the immune system to kill the cancer. Now, the lab has recently tested this in cultured human cancer cells. They found that by blocking the CD47 "do not eat me signal," the macrophages did, indeed, attack and eat the cancer cells.

But without the antibody, the macrophages ignored the cancer cells completely. In the living mice so treated, implanted human cancers all had shrinkage of the tumors, no spread to lymph nodes, and remained cancer-free for four months that's a long time for a rodent after the treatment was stopped.

From an editorial in Science, "In mice given human bladder cancer tumors, for example, 10 of 10 untreated mice had cancer that spread to their lymph nodes. Only one of 10 mice treated with anti-CD47 had a lymph node with signs of cancer. I've maintained for 30 years that cancer is a failure of the immune system.

That failure is due in part to the cancer blinding itself to your immune cells. Kelley and Gonzales successfully treat treated cancer with proteolysis pancreatic enzymes. These enzymes may eat away the immune "cloaking" of cancer, enabling your immune cells to go and eat them up. It fits my observations of some cancers, even in late stage, disappearing with immuneenhancing oxidation and nutritional therapies. Conventional medicine is likely to move to a single antibody to "cloak" the cloaking protein.

This may work, but as a single protein, it also may have significant toxicity as does other single antibody immune treatments. Also, cancer may simply outwit a single antibody by making other cloaking proteins, much like insects outwit pesticides. Nevertheless, I really like this line of research and will keep you posted.

I don't think that there will ever be a "one size fits all" approach to cancer. We have seen some stunning successes, but have our "failures" as well. If you have cancer, please see an integrative physician who can work with your immune system with a variety of approaches, including nutritional and oxidation.

Cancer cells secrete an enzyme called nagalase, which pulls a sugar molecule off a key protein called Gc. This process inactivates the cancer-hunting macrophages so that they cannot see the tumor cells just like CD A discovery found that GcMAF inactivates nagalase. The Gc protein is no longer inactivated, enabling immune cells to see and attack cancer cells right in your body.

It now is in Japan at www. You also can find it at www. Patients, with the assistance of their integrative doctors, can order the product and have their doctor administer it.

This will be an exciting addition to our therapies, most of which are designed to enhance immune function. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, vol. Also in this issue: Six agricultural pesticides are suspected. These include maneb, mancozeb, methyl parathion, and carbaryl If you find this information useful, please subscribe to Dr. This diet is made up primarily of raw fruits and vegetables.

While many have said this diet won't work, the proof that it does continues to come out. In fact, each passing year brings new proof of my long-term observations and conclusions.

Now there's yet more proof that the heat you use on your foods does, indeed, cause you much greater risk for diabetes and vascular disease. This new proof comes from a new randomized, cross-over diet study on 62 volunteers. Cross-over studies are great in that they allow the studied groups to switch roles. That adds a lot of significance to the findings. The researchers in this study evaluated the effects of Maillard reaction products MRP on the volunteers.

MRP is a name for a chemical process by which heat generates literally hundreds or more of a complex mixture of compounds responsible for a huge range of odors and flavors. Heating starches to high temperatures creates acrylamide. I've told you in the past about how this compound can increase your risk of cancer.

Flavor scientists have used heat over years to create artificial flavors, which you'll find in processed foods. The diets of the two groups differed only in the type and amount of heat inflicted on the foods they ate.

One group steamed their food and the other used high temperature cooking. After one month, those consuming high-heat treated diets compared to steaming saw significantly lower insulin sensitivity. They also had much lower plasma concentrations of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C, and vitamin E. These findings were highly significant. The authors concluded that consuming high heat-treated foods increases your risk of type-2 diabetes and vascular disease.

What an international stir that would make! But you can do it right in your own kitchen! How to flush metals from your body and make yourself healthier and more youthful at the same time! No painful or uncomfortable treatments involved I'm a maverick who looks outside the box. I've been to India where I've seen hard-working vegetarian peasants losing limbs to diabetes in their 30s. And no, they were not obese. They cook their foods to oblivion in oil. We've known for years that heat destroys crucial vitamins like C, B6, and now E.

It also destroys fatty acids, denatures proteins, and limits mineral availability. But we are now getting an inkling of how heated foods causes yet deeper and subtler damage. Heat creates compounds not found in nature. These compounds could be highly immune activating, carcinogenic, toxic oxidants, oxidized lipids the underlying cause of vascular disease dangerous amines, and more. I urge you to move toward the Living Foods Diet.

Science is proving me right month after month. It's no wonder that I see miracle after miracle in my practice. But they're not "miracles. Use only water to cook with. That upper limit of heat may be below the threshold for the most toxic chemical reactions.

Never cook with oil. There's just no control for how hot it gets. Am J Clin Nutr. Epub Mar As a token of our appreciation for being our valuable customer, we'd like to give you two special reports that show you how to make your supplements work even better and how to stop cancer, memory loss, and diabetes for just pennies a day absolutely free.

All you have to do right now is click the "Like Us On Facebook" button below to become a fan of our Facebook page and get instant access to these two special reports. Click the "Like Us On Facebook" button below. If you would like to contact us with a question or comment, please send us a message to feedback secondopinionnewsletter.

The compound capsaicin — that causes this pungent heat — is also found to kill cancer cells. In fact, in the last few years, the research on chili peppers has focused on many organs including, the pancreas, brain, prostate, colon and breast. Do chili peppers harm healthy cells? Among them, the study on prostate cancer cells drew more interest from researchers. Experiments, on the compound capsacisin reveal that this compound specifically targeted the tumors and cancerous cells without affecting the healthy cells.

It was found that capsaicin was able to do this by interfering with protein synthesis of the cancer cells, degradation of the cell DNA and interfering with cell transcription mechanisms of cancerous cells. While capsaicin affected the mitochondrial pathway of the cancer cells, there was no interference in the activity of healthy cells. This was observed in cancer-induced albino rats in lab studies. A study published in Cancer Research revealed that capsaicin was effective in inhibiting prostate cancer cells.

The study found that capsaicin promoted automated cell death in primary types of prostate cancer cell lines — as well as in cancer cells caused by hormones. Furthermore, capsaicin decreased the expression of prostate-specific antigen PSA and inhibited the ability of the dihydrotestosterone to activate PSA. When lab animals received four weeks of treatment with capsaicin, it was observed that prostate cancer growth and size significantly decreased.

Chili peppers do more than just prevent cancer Compounds in chili peppers have been associated with multiple benefits like positive immune health, weight loss, lower risk of diabetes, and heart-healthy effects. A randomized, cross-over study among 27 healthy subjects revealed that consuming freshly chopped chili prevented the oxidation free radical damage to the fat cells — which was a crucial factor in decreasing heart problems.

Capsaicin is also anti-inflammatory in nature. It inhibits substance P, a neuropeptide associated with inflammation that results in pain, heart diseases and other conditions. Because of this property, it has been used in a variety of chemotherapy studies for pain relief and also in many treatments involving nerve fiber disorders, conditions like psoriasis, arthritis plus many more. Researchers say, the hotter the pepper, the higher is its capsaicin content, good examples include habanero and scotch bonnet peppers followed by jalapeno.

Ways to use chili peppers in your next recipe Chili peppers can give any bland recipe an interesting taste. So, the next time you sauté vegetables in a stir fry try adding some chili peppers to accentuate its health benefits as well as spice up a bit. Other ways to super-charge your recipes include, adding minced chili peppers to plain yoghurt as a salad dressing; in salsa for extra hot taste; pureeing a small amount with tomatoes or olives to give a surprising twist to your recipes.

Just be very careful when you are handling fresh chili peppers, direct contact with skin, lips and eyes can cause a severe burning sensation. Be sure to use cooking gloves instead of bare hands when using them for cooking. Consuming chili peppers, in moderation, is considered safe, however if you are allergic to peppers or night shade family, it is a good idea to keep away from this spice.

Another important point to keep in mind is to buy organic hot peppers instead of conventionally grown ones. Looking for natural health solutions? Sign up now — for our free, weekly show featuring the greatest minds in natural health and science plus a free gift! International Imuunopharmacology, vol 17 2 Cancer Res Mar 15;66 6: Clinical applications of capsaicinoids.

Clin J Pain Jun;16 2 Suppl: Laetrile cures cancer — naturally http: You can also download the free iPhone application that is available in the iTunes store. Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce http: Cosmetic Safety Database http: This article lists the "dirty dozen" as well as which foods have the least pesticide residue: The Curse of Convenience http: From as far back as first having a fire to warm us, we learned to contain it in stones that radiated the heat leading to what most of us love and still Produced with Free Range Studios and hosted by Annie Leonard, the seven-minute film by The Story of Stuff Project reveals the implications for consumer and worker health and the environment, and outlines ways we can move the industry away from hazardous chemicals and towards safer alternatives.

The film concludes with a call for viewers to support legislation aimed at ensuring the safety of cosmetics and personal care products. And, for all you fact checkers out there, http: The amount of lead found in of the lipstick products tested was greater than the maximum 0.

NaturalNews issues boycott of Kashi, Silk, Larabar and more http: Russia bans GMOs in the wake of the cancer tumor rat study. France is seeking a European-wide ban on GMOs. Is the end of Monsanto's evil reign near?

Boycott of "Organic Cheater" Brands PDF printable version of the above press release can be found here. Your list states Nature's Gate does not make a natural or organic claim. Communicating the verifiable benefits of organic farming and products to society.

Shopper's Guide to Personal Care Products List of over businesses who have signed on to endorse this campaign http: Bronner's Lawsuit with Ecocert read the cross complaint http: Shopper's Guide to Personal Care Products Read and print the shopper's guide to 1,4-dioxane-free personal care products http: The guide is now also available as an iPhone application. The Best and Worst Vegetables to Eat http: One person's food may be another person's poison.

Jack Thrasher on the Health Dangers of Molds http: Vitamin D and Tuberculosis] http: See articles about GMO and other topics: It does include generic tips designed to help consumers identify and avoid genetically modified GM foods, including the hidden GM ingredients labeled ingredients on foods that read more like a chemical periodic table on grocers shelves. Here's a list of relative mercury contamination in wild fish: The types of fish that are higher in omega-3 are healthier for you smaller Salmon, Sardines and Anchovies , and wild-caught or line-caught are much healthier choices than farmed fish usually fed corn meal, which is high in omega-6 pro-inflammatory oil, even if its "organic", ground up smaller fish, hogs, etc.

Wild fish eat krill, plankton and algae, which is why they are high in healthy astaxanthin and omega-3 oils. The following are ingredients that may be made from GM soy, corn, cotton, or canola You can learn more about the Non-GMO project by visiting: High levels of EMF exposure are generated by common household devices such as hair dryers, can openers, heating pads and even some computer monitors.

EMF exposures destroy health and well-being, claims panel of top international scientists http: There is no end to the tricks that endocrine disruptors can play on our bodies: The list also includes common contaminants that many people don't realize can be hormone disruptors, not only those familiar toxins - arsenic, mercury and lead - but other, less familiar chemicals such as glycol ethers and perfluorinated chemicals.

The guide is intended for consumers of all ages, particularly young people who are most at risk from these dangerous substances. EWG researchers compiled the new Dirty Dozen list by scouring scientific literature and identifying the most hazardous and widely-used hormone-disrupting chemicals that pollute the environment and ultimately our bodies.

These substances are frequently found in food, water and consumer products. Studies have linked them to a wide array of health problems, including cancer, birth defects, lowered sperm count, lowered IQ, obesity and thyroid disease. This is a must-see list of chemicals to avoid - check it out today! Click here to see 12 of the worst hormone disruptors, how they do their dirty deeds, and some tips on how to avoid them. See this brand-new list of the dirtiest and most common endocrine disruptors.

We hope you learn something new from the endocrine disruptor Dirty Dozen. Take a look at the label on your jar of skin cream. Do you see any of these ingredients? Now, this is a big deal - because The medical world already knows this. The same way your skin soaks up the medicine in those patches, it absorbs all of the ingredients in your skin cream - including the toxic ones.

And that can cause health problems for you down the road. These harsh skin care chemicals can also destroy your complexion - and make you look years older. Claim a FREE Special Report that reveals how breakthrough plant stem cell technology - combined with 36 other "all-natural" skin-restoring nutrients - can help you smooth away the appearance of lines and wrinkles Your complexion is still too dull Your anti-aging cream is letting you down — and it may be worse than you think Hidden inside most skincare products are dangerous chemicals and synthetic ingredients.

Take a good look at the label on your anti-aging cream. You may be shocked to find: The trouble is… they also mimic estrogen, which can throw your hormonal balance out of whack and trigger potentially serious problems with your reproductive system. It can cause allergic reactions, skin irritations, and even liver abnormalities and kidney damage.

Sodium Laurel Sulfate has also been found to cause urinary tract, bladder and kidney infections Especially DEA, which has been linked to kidney, liver and other organ damage They can also destroy your complexion — and make you look years older than you actually are Think that the label that says "organically grown" has anything to do with the packaging, storage, and transport of that product to stores?

What if I told you that cow, pig, and chicken collagen is now used in place of wax on your fruits and vegetables, among many other things much worse than you can probably imagine? And what if then I told you, as with most atrocities that happen now-a-days, that this is all approved by the FDA Since the early 12th century, there has been a tradition of applying wax onto the skins of fruits and vegetables for longer storage life.

Today, that tradition is being carried on with a whole new generation of chemicals and compounds that are genetically designed to accomplish the same goal. But in these modern times, the health and well-being of the consumer of that apple is not necessarily the goal of this unnatural, inorganic process. Prepare yourself to be shocked and amazed that our Federal agency that is designed to protect us, the Food and Drug Administration, is allowing these dangerous and unhealthy practices to be perpetrated on an unwitting public, all in the name of profits.

This video was recently posted to Youtube, showing a woman peeling off of her freshly bought supermarket romaine lettuce what appears to be a plastic coating, similar to the type one would peal off of the screen of a new electronic gadget. She has no idea what she has discovered Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce It's also important to remember that not all organic compounds are good for us either.

For instance, lead is a naturally-occuring compound and completely organic and it's deadly to humans. The same goes for the leaves of rhubarb plants, arsenic found in many fruit pits, and mistletoe to name a few.

Download our free Guide or get it for your iPhone or Android! This is probably the most urgent question the public has about these novel foods. Opinion polls show that up to 90 percent of the American public wants GE foods labeled.

But despite this overwhelming demand, almost no foods on U. And the biotech industry does not voluntarily identify them, fearing, probably correctly, that the majority of Americans would avoid GE foods if given a choice. As a result, the U. However, this is not the case with most of our major trading partners around the globe who have instituted mandatory labeling of all GE foods and ingredients. The Guide is designed to help you reclaim your right to know about the foods you are buying, and help you find and avoid GE foods.

In addition to a list of brands that produce non-GE foods, the mobile app also offers contact information for the companies that DO use GE ingredients. This feature enables you to personally voice your opposition on the use of GE foods directly to these companies, right from the app. Our Shoppers Guide gives you valuable information on common GE ingredients, brands to look for, and look out for, and common sense tips to keep you in the know.

Stop shopping in the dark and get your Shoppers Guide today! PC PDF file http: The New Dirty Dozen http: The medical establishment usually chalks up those deaths to cancer.

But the media and The missing link - How to beat cancer with garlic http: This arsenal of cancer cell killers relies on certain nutrients to have the fuel to do its Turmeric and curcumin prevent formation of new blood vessels induced by arsenic, cancer http: Most of turmeric's health benefits are attributed to the trio of yellow-orange chemicals Alcohol consumption is directly related to breast cancer: How I took it, and how much I took.

Bear in mind, this is what I did. You will have to decide for yourself what is Best for You! As promised, we've just published detailed new heavy metals composition charts on vegan proteins and rice proteins. These charts also include data on the exciting new SunWarrior "Warrior Blend" formulas, which turn out to be remarkably low in the heavy metals we've tested for: How avoiding conventional dentistry can literally save your life If you see a dentist, make sure she's a holistic dentist.

It turns out that conventional dentistry is incredibly toxic and can quite literally cause your death: The American Dental Association continues to maintain that mercury fillings and root canals are safe dental procedures, in spite of the overwhelming evidence against High Intensity Short Duration exercise -- not aerobic which generates lots of free radicals; search www.

Just exercise more, scientists discover A more active lifestyle doesn't just reduce your risk of cancer and improve survival rates among cancer patients: Medical mutilations have been performed lately on women told they are genetically Obamacare to punish healthy eaters as insurance rates double or triple for those who choose to take care of their health According to an analysis just published by the Wall Street Journal, healthy people will pay double or triple their current A detailed analysis of Obamacare health insurance rates reveals something very disturbing: Healthy people will be paying double or triple the rates they are currently paying, while premiums will go down for those who live on junk foods and develop chronic disease.

The economic incentives are all backwards: Obamacare will punish healthy people while subsidizing those who refuse to take care of their health. Here are the numbers: There has been some decline in cigarette smoking in the USA, but with all the known health issues associated with smoking cigarettes, it seemed there should be almost no new domestic smokers at all.

But the power of advertising has prevailed, even more so in third world countries with less restrictions on cigarette advertising. Is it the Tobacco Plant, or Something Else? Avoid enclosed areas where people smoke. The Department of Health and Human Services had approved chemical additives to cigarettes by Among them are ammonia compounds to create a nicotine freebase effect.

Then there are the toxic additives to the paper to make it burn evenly. Cadmium is a heavy metal with a half-life of 10 to 30 years residence in human tissue, and it easily surpasses toxic levels.

Few mention chemtrails or aerosol geoengineering exposure because most deny their existence. Deny them all you want, but the heavy metal nanoparticles have been trapped in ground level water or air traps after heavy chemtrailing include, among others, barium, aluminum, and cadmium.

Retired neurosurgeon and author Dr. Russell Blaylock has voiced concerns over chemtrail aluminum nanoparticles that are breathed in and make their way into the central nervous system and brain. Access a study on that here. Then begin watching your sky objectively. You can protect yourself from those toxic nanoparticles by detoxing heavy metals often.

My favorites are lots of chlorella, fresh organic cilantro, and cliniptilolite zeolite powder not capsules or liquids. Here are 6 foods for natural heavy metal chelation.

A five day detox with 1. Shallenberger - Real Cures newsletter July , Vol. But which ones are the most important?

Almost all of my diabetic patients have seen tremendous results using these. Chromium piccolinate— Chromium is an important element in your glucose tolerance factor GTF. GTF is made up of chromium, niacin, and the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine, and worksin tandem with insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Herbert Meltzer of Vanderbilt joined the effort. A new Web-based tool is now available to help clinicians determine the best medication for patients with schizophrenia.

An international team led by Meltzer completed the new algorithms, or step-by-step protocols, in late to provide clinicians with help on their treatment decisions.

Further it was thought that controlling polypharmacy would improve patient outcomes. The literature, however, continues to reveal problematic results with schizophrenia drug treatments. Learning While You Sleep Max Planck researchers in Heidelberg are investigating communication between memory areas during sleep. Their study offers the hitherto strongest proof that new information is transferred between the hippocampus, the short term memory area, and the cerebral cortex during sleep.

It has been difficult up to now to use experiments to examine the brain processes that create memory. The scientists in Heidelberg developed an innovative experimental approach especially for this purpose. They succeeded in measuring the membrane potential of individual interneurones neurones that suppress the activity of the hippocampus in anaethetised mice.

At the same time, they recorded the field potential of thousands of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex. This allowed them to link the behaviour of the individual nerve cells with that of the cerebral cortex. The researchers discovered that the interneurones they examined are active at almost the same time as the field potential of the cerebral cortex. There was just a slight delay, like an echo. In the present study, Dr. But the two new genes, as well, look more generally to be a pathway to mental retardation.

But it turns out that multi-tasking is pretty darn hard for everybody. Their research revealed that the central bottleneck was caused by the inability of the lateral frontal and prefrontal cortex, and also the superior frontal cortex, to process the two tasks at once. Both areas have been shown in previous experiments to play a critical role in cognitive control. See Neuron , vol. Research on the insula, funded by the NDA, was led by Dr. Antoine Bechara at the University of Southern California.

See WSJ , January 26, , p. Son of William Shawn, longtime editor of the New Yorker , and brother of Wallace Shawn, the actor, Shawn attributes some of his tortures to separation from his autistic sister Mary at an early age. In a January 19 column in the WSJ , she does a column of snippets from the new book.

The Dalai Lama wondered if the reverse were true. That is, in addition to the brain giving rise to thoughts and hopes and beliefs and emotions that add up to this thing we call the mind, maybe the mind also acts back on the brain to cause physical changes in the very matter that created it.

If so, then pure thought would change the brain's activity, its circuits or even its structure. For instance, certain synthesized speech can alter the auditory cortex of dyslexic kids in a way that lets their brains hear previously garbled syllables; intensely practiced movements can alter the motor cortex of stroke patients and allow them to move once paralyzed arms or legs.

The kind of change the Dalai Lama asked about was different. It would come from inside. The antidepressant raised activity there. The drug lowered activity there. With cognitive therapy, says Dr. If a skill becomes so routine you can do it on autopilot, practicing it will no longer change the brain. And if you take up mental exercises to keep your brain young, they will not be as effective if you become able to do them without paying much attention.

Eleanor McGuire and her associates at the Wellcome Trust have long been exploring this very territory. Our findings provide compelling support for the idea that memory and future thought are highly interrelated and help explain why future thought may be impossible without memories. Although the frontal lobes play a well-documented role in carrying out future-oriented executive operations, such as anticipation, planning and monitoring, the spark for these activities may well be the very process of envisioning oneself in a specific future event, an activity based within and reliant upon the same neurally distributed network used to retrieve autobiographical memories.

Second, within this neural network, patterns of activity suggest that the visual and spatial context for our imagined future often is pieced together using our past experiences, including memories of specific body movements and visual perspective changes—data stored as we navigated through similar settings in the past. Sharon Begley, author of one of the better columns in the Wall Street Journal , has touched on this and, lately, has delivered two salvos making this point, both on November 17 and November Orthodoxy also stifles research on other culprits.

David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco. She goes on to mention a few of the enzyme and gene theories that may shed some light on the disease. What she makes clear and what we should understand is that standard orthodoxy has slowed discovery on this fast-spreading disease. We are particularly aware of research that has been shoved aside in the Boston medical community, but a similar lack of open-mindedness has shut down innovative thinking in many other ports of call.

The Economist July 29, , pp. By … that number will have trebled. As we have mentioned many times, researchers have tended to focus on one simple gene or explanation in trying to discover the key to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, autism, and a host of neurological diseases. Our suspicion is that the disease mechanism in each instance is infinitely more complicated than investigators can imagine, and that researchers have not even perceived the correct disease model that would help lead to advances.

Alzheimer's research is now trying to see whether the focus should be amyloids or not. What seems evident to us is that amyloid is one of many wastes, which also includes metallic outputs, that the system cannot process. The disease condition, in our view, is evidence that the system is not ridding itself of sundry excretions. Rats, it is revealed, grow thousands of brain cells every day, but only retain them if used; otherwise, they die off in a couple of weeks.

For the longest while scientists thought that we did not grow new cells—that we only had those with which we came to this party. But now they know we grow a lot, many in the hippocampus, the center for remembering events. Tracey Shors of Rutgers and her colleagues found that neurons are retained if used, and, maturing, get wired into networks if they are involved in complex learning chores. For more on this, see the vita of Dr.

There is still considerable dispute, however, as to what extent brain exercise helps deteriorating brains. C hemo Hurts We are intimately familiar with cancer survivors who say that their brains are very, very cloudy for about a year after their last intravenous feed by the oncologists.

Now researchers have come along to prove the obvious. Existing remedies only help half of all depression patients and often have unpleasant side effects.

They target neurotransmitters, acting on proteins from only about 20 of the approximately 15, genes in the brain. Cortisol may damage nerve cell connections and prevent nerve growth. Targacept is studying mecamylamine, a blood pressure drug it got from Merck, seeing whether it will block receptors and control mood fluctuation. As usual, there is the threat of side effects, particularly to the liver. CBS is out with a new TV drama about—of all things—brain surgeons.

It stars the fabulous Stanley Tucci, but it already may be terminal. Hanson Tucci is brainy, talented, and, of course, fouled up. He suffers from hallucinations, but we think the writers are just projecting their own complaint onto their main character. Seger, against each other with diametrically opposed philosophies about how to approach their patients.

At least the writers have infused the drama with a touch of humor to break up all the staring at brain x-rays. The entire neurological wing of the hospital is decorated with the pattern of nerves that map the brain. It makes for a busy background. Too bad CBS tarted it up. Cognitive Decline Sharon Begley points out that we can get rather muddled about what produces brain decline Wall Street Journal , April 28, , p.

Many think that those in brain-active jobs ward off dementia; more likely, says Ms. Begley, they have well-fortified brains in the first place, and that they are armored against decline. Mental exercise does not necessarily correlate with mental preservation, despite the games dreamed up by neurologists and others to keep you humming—many of which are mentioned on Global Province. They only seem to help the brain along if you keep upping the ante, challenging the mind with tougher and tougher mental exercises.

Begley notes that other forms of training—cardiovascular fitness exercise, for instance—do seem to tune up the brain at the same time. See the Wall Street Journal , October 17, , pp. The drug targets an enzyme, called gamma secretase, that is believed to play a role in the build-up of amyloid. Narcolepsy Either one gets too much sleep or no sleep at all.

We are just beginning to take a look at Narcolepsy. But they have baked brains. We find its historical material a little useful, though we are not able to evaluate its focus on hypocretins. We would, of course, like to see more research on the site from other institutions.

It probably helps to look at the Narcolepsy Network in order to get a wider scan of the field. Chez Scaruffi You cannot be in the brain business and fail to look at Piero Scaruffi. He is perhaps most renowned for his music site but Thymos is a must for anyone who wants to think about cognition. We have just begun to explore it. Perhaps a good starting point is his Annotated Bibliography of the Mind , which covers a fair patch of the literature on consciousness.

If you need to get away from his catalog of cognition, visit his cluster of other sites and strands. If this pruning cannot take place, the organ becomes less and less efficient, and dire consequences result. This is a rare brain disorder that is caused by an autoimmune response which destroys the human equivalents of ion channels that are affected in the mutant fruit fly. Eventually, this extreme sleep deprivation kills them. See the Economist , June 18, , pp.

Elizabeth Gould of Princeton did research in this specific area, and allied research has been done by Craig Kinsley at University of Richmond. See Nature , 24 August , pp. E lectro-Shock Electric shock treatments are being selectively revived. See the Economist , June 3, , pp. Its effects are reported to be long lasting. It builds on the idea of deep-brains stimulation which is a more complicated procedure, the vagus insert being much easier to do.

It does, however, require a fairly long course of treatment—at least 3 months-for the palliative effects to take hold. The Defense Department has put a blanket on its staff, preventing it from commenting on the issue. It is our understanding that Senators Dick Durban and George Allen are separately plumping for a richer budget. Stuttering We receive reports of some modest progress on stuttering.

Like autism and many other neurological complaints, it is no longer regarded as an environmentally induced form of behavior, but instead is taken to be genetic and neurological in nature. D1 and D6, various hypotheses and possibilities are forwarded. Maguire, a psychiatrist at the University of California, Irvine, wants to cure the ailment that afflicts him and an estimated three million Americans.

Stutterers, on the other hand, show an unusually large amount of right brain activity. Maguire has also done small trials with two schizophrenia drugs, Risperdal and Zyprexa. Apparently, the post-op animal exhibited the same personality and a minimal reduction in intelligence. One of his oldest patients had the surgery in his thirties.

Bradley Schlaggar, a pediatric neurologist and a professor at Washington University in St. Louis, told me about an experiment that he conducted for his Ph. Once the second rat had grown up, Schlaggar took a look at its brain and discovered that the transplanted chunk of visual cortex was functioning as a somatosensory cortex. Rejecting Bettleheim, who tended to think autistic children were the products of untoward parenting, he recognized it as a specific brain disorder.

More importantly, we think, he developed the TEACCH program in North Carolina which, starting in , helped parents and caregivers by understanding that autistics did not learn in traditional ways but could develop, especially with carefully designed interventions by parents and others.

George Huntington was the first to describe the disease in his paper On Chorea, which was published in Although cystamine treatment rescued neuron loss in the striatum of the HD animal model, motor function did not improve. However, gene silencing was able to restore motor recovery without rescuing striatal neuron loss.

These results indicate that the abnormalities of motor function seen in HD are due to neuronal dysfunction, and not necessarily neuron loss. Wallis was 19 when he suffered a traumatic brain injury that left him briefly in a coma and then in a minimally conscious state, in which he was awake but uncommunicative other than occasional nods and grunts, for more than 19 years.

Deja Vecu A variant of déjà vu has given researchers a more complex understanding of the memory mechanism. Canadian psychologist Endel Tulving had previously broken memories into two categories—episodic and semantic. Semantic broadly relates to the idea of recalling a piece of data we have committed to memory. Episodic memories are more complex, using different parts of the brain, to conjure up memory but also to interpret it as something we have experienced.

Chris Moulin at Leeds University and, earlier, David Schacter of Harvard both had reported on individuals who felt strongly familiar with people, newspaper accounts, and other subject matter with which they had no possible connection.

Moulin and Conway concluded that … the deja vecu of their patients was similarly located in the temporal lobes…. Presented with a visual illusion, chronic schizophrenics could see much more clearly than a control group of normally functioning people.

Yet despite this miniscule number, the auditory system is the fastest of the five senses. Researchers credit this discrepancy to a series of lightning-fast calculations in the brain that translate minimal input into maximal understanding.

The condition is linked to the same factors—high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, diabetes—that play a role in many heart attacks. Just like in the heart, the condition causes narrowing or blockage in brain blood vessels. The review of the book by William Grimes in the Times is not terribly profound, and it more or less suggests that brain surgery is no less, no more complicated than other forms of surgical endeavor.

It does make clear that Firlik is a fairly vivid writer who can communicate about her world in terms the layperson can surely understand. Molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex in a case of dementia praecox S. Central nervous system of the Hirudo medicinalis G.

One hundred years ago Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Camillo Golgi were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work on revealing the structure of the brain. This will be a permanent exhibition, but it will also tour other cities in Spain and around the world. The early period, commencing with a detailed study of the nervous system, and containing contain drawings of some of the most important pioneers in neuroscience, including Cajal, Golgi, Retzius, Nissl, Dogiel and Alzheimer.

Hippocampus of a Brainbow mouse J. Adult stem cells from human brain N. Mapping the Mind—in Detail Julie H. See Forbes , November 14, , pp. There are a dozen or so labs looking at neural circuitry of fruit flies, but Simpson is working a wider canvas than most. Most are looking at a narrow brain function: Researchers at MIT, the University of Hong Kong, and others cut a channel in the optic nerve of 53 newly born hamsters.

These short amino acids are capable of creating a molecular scaffold that can bridge such gaps. This was again tried with adult hamsters, and significant vision returned to them. Also see the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. T eacher Education in Finland The Finnish education system, whatever its dilemmas, gets the very highest marks when compared with the offerings of other nations in Europe and around the world.

For this reason it is stimulating to see what has been going on there in teacher education. Current Trends and Future Scenarios. The author notes that even insular Finland must, like every other country, take account of a rapid changing society which means adding strategic and tactical flexibility to its processes in order for the nation to keep up with the times.

This contrasts, for instance, with the practices of several U. It is noted that the Finnish teacher understands that he or she must be committed to a life-long pattern of re-education. Apparently, as in the U. There still is stability in teacher employment in the primary grades. The history of education in almost every country, however, is littered with tales of intractable systems that fail to change at a rate that will keep up with the transformation society is undergoing: Finland, today, has the same complaint.

This is reinforced by the fact that central government controls so much of what is going on: Disappointingly, the article does not come to terms with the high stress atmosphere that characterizes schools every where today. That has led to a rash of student depression and even sporadic outbreaks of suicide. In the most recent test, which focused on science, Finland's students placed first in science and near the top in math and reading, according to results released late last year.

Parents of newborns receive a government-paid gift pack that includes a picture book. Some libraries are attached to shopping malls, and a book bus travels to more remote neighborhoods like a Good Humor truck. There are fewer disparities in education and income levels among Finns. All year-old students took the PISA test.

Even with the potential risks that inhibitors may pose, researchers are moving forward a host of drugs that may slow and stop amyloid development: High doses of gamma-secretase inhibitors cause severe toxic effects in mice as a consequence of disrupting the Notch signal, raising serious concerns about this potential therapy.

Nevertheless, a drug candidate developed by pharmaceutical maker Eli Lilly has passed safety tests in volunteers. This kind of test is called a phase I clinical trial. Moreover, researchers have identified molecules that modulate gamma-secretase so that A-beta production is blocked without affecting the cleavage of Notch.

In Dale B. Schenk and his colleagues at Elan Corporation in South San Francisco made a groundbreaking discovery: Other researchers are pursuing nonimmunological strategies to stop the aggregation of A-beta. Several companies have identified compounds that interact directly with A-beta to keep the peptide dissolved in the fluid outside brain neurons, preventing the formation of harmful clumps.

Neurochem in Quebec is developing Alzhemed, a small molecule that apparently mimics heparin, the natural anticoagulant. In blood, heparin prevents platelets from gathering into clots, but when this polysaccharide binds to A-beta, it makes the peptide more likely to form deposits. Of course, less physical and social activity on the part of the aged, and the less challenging environments oldsters live in, impair production of neurons and maintenance of neural circuitry. The evidence seems to point to the fact that older brains can be retrained through pertinent exercises to retain their functionality.

When the ear is attentive and working hard, it funnels clearer information to brain centers that handle memory and perception. Merzenich claims his software enables the brain, according to cognitive testing, to perform as if it were ten years younger.

There is a host of research on plasticity, but this whole area of exploration is still quite controversial, and investigators still do not know how long the effects of brain training, even when effective, endure. Also, she notes that challenged people tend to have better sustained brain function than people who have cashed in their chips and become too laid back. We remember well a chap we knew in the early 80s who, nearing retirement, got a grant from the Ford Foundation and became the oldest freshman at Harvard.

He thought, wrongly we think, that you cannot do much about the body, but that you can recharge the brain. He, incidentally, had never gotten a college education, but had paid for his kids to go to the best universities in the land, so he thought he deserved his chance at bat. It was a bizarre experience, since the grad students and teachers were fixated on getting ahead, and his fellow students were fastened on getting grades.

Only he had the luxury of trying to get an education. For the Ford Foundation, he only had to write a paper about the experience. In the early stages the honorees were involved with basic research that tried to describe the disease mechanism.

With the turn of the century, researchers are looking more closely at treatments, trying to do something to at least stall the dementia progress.

We have been impressed at the wide swathe of institutions represented by the winners: Flexing Your Brain The literature is now littered with hypotheses that say the brain can be stretched and be rewired, overcoming the deterioration of age and other mental defects, even surging beyond the capabilities that were apparent there at birth.

But we think the Japanese are really onto something. Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day. Having studied test subjects in his lab, Nintendo programmers have devised a hand-held game that includes drills that stimulate the brain most. Nintendo has definitely penetrated older segments of its home market, well beyond teen age enthusiasts.

The revive-your-brain market is open for the taking. But the company has turned things on end. People are clamoring for it not just for games, but also to keep a household budget, play the guitar, and study the Buddhist scripture Heart Sutra. Since its introduction in , the DS, which responds in writing and speech, has spurred software makers to fill the Japanese market with an eclectic array of reference guides, digital books and study tools.

See The Boston Globe , March 10, No less than students are enrolled. But with such an enormous course enrollment, Tal D. Their studies show that rewiring of the brain involves the formation and elimination of synapses, the connections between neurons. The technique offers a new way to examine how learning can spur changes in the organization of neuronal connections in the brain. To study those kinds of changes in a living animal, Svoboda and his colleagues started with transgenic mice that were engineered to produce green fluorescent protein within neurons in a portion of the brain that processes tactile sensory inputs from the whiskers.

To observe changes in these neurons at high resolution, the scientists constructed a 2-photon laser scanning microscope. Importantly, it helps us understand that the brain is constantly remaking itself, often due to external stimulus.

In back-to-back papers published online, Rockefeller University scientists established possible new targets for drugs. First, PLD1 regulates the shuttling of beta-amyloid precursor protein beta-APP , a large molecule produced naturally in the body and found in many different cells, including brain cells. It covers a variety of needs and interests. In general they now suspect that the affliction is really a host of conditions that tend to look alike at the macro level.

But it probably stems from a host of causes, the brain having taken multiple assaults from external forces. And the wiring foul ups that cause it vary so widely that scans and other technical devices may show circuitry in far different parts of the brain are amiss from patient to patient. The brain works as a unit. Everything is connected to everything else, and what we really need to be looking at more is abnormality in the circuitry level.

As much as anybody, he can be credited as well with the creation of the modern computer. He worked with the great theoretical physicist John von Neumann and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, an Austrian star at Cambridge. As we are discovering now in our neurological investigations, it is researchers such as Turing who can cross over many disciplines that best illuminate the complexities of the brain.

The chemical connections between neurons, called synapses, are thought to be critical to the formation of those networks and hence the laying down of memories. In a group led by Thomas Arendt of the University of Leipzig in Germany showed that the number of synapses in the hippocampus, a brain structure crucial for learning and memory, falls during hibernation. At the end of hibernation this protein clears away, and it is possible that the understanding of its comings and goings in the human brain would be helpful to understanding various disease mechanisms.

This site, and the sites it links to, also provide a reasonable picture of the organization of the brain. Is Singularity Upon Us? In Ubiquity , Ray Kursweil speculates that a better brain is close at hand: A thousand dollars of computation will equal the 10, trillion calculations per second that I estimate is necessary to emulate the human brain by The software side will take a little longer.

In order to achieve the algorithms of human intelligence, we need to actually reverse-engineer the human brain, understand its principles of operation. And there again, not surprisingly, we see exponential growth where we are doubling the spatial resolution of brain scanning every year, and doubling the information that we're gathering about the brain every year.

Most objective observers realize that we really do not have a clue as to how anti-depressants work, that they do not work very well, and that they are very crude drugs that are used promiscuously. The side effects are uncharted, and we have long been puzzled as to why it takes so long for them to kick in beneficially, although negative side effects often show up quickly.

Now we are finally getting some hints as to how serotonin really gets activated:. The energy levels of the fields were six times smaller than that of conventional cell phones and unlikely to harm healthy cells, the researchers say.

The fibrils subsequently dissolved and remained dissolved for at least one week after being irradiated, indicating that the treatment was not only effective at breaking up the fibrils but also resulted in a lower tendency of the proteins to re-aggregate, according to the researchers.

Autopsies, however, show an amazing reduction in plaque. Schneider began to get her life back. Electrodes were surgically inserted in her brain and attached by wires to two pacemakers implanted in her chest…. Within eight weeks Ms. Movement disorders can result from a variety of stimuli, ranging from diseases to oxygen starvation to drug side effects.

Perceptions here can be manipulated by expectations suggestions. Hypnosis has a long history, to include its uses for medical problems, but nobody quite ever has known how it works. The subjects are primarily Dominicans, many from the Washington Heights neighborhood where the Taub is located. Late-onset is complex, stemming from a combination of genes, only one of which has been identified. Mayeux is involved with a host of neurological activities at Columbia as well.

Such genius has long been associated with serious mental illness, especially schizophrenia and drug abuse. Drugs and Brain Rot To some extent, Nancy Andreasen works hard at telling us what we already sort of know. Last Fall in the Times September 16, , p.

That is, many conditions in the brain and elsewhere are due to accelerated deterioration. And drugs, by implication, are given out much too promiscuously. Andreasen had told us that she had moved her focus to creativity, but it is clear that she still has a hand in the schizophrenia game.

Airport screeners may miss target items when they are surrounded by other very similar items. As well, they also easily miss targets with slight variances from what they have in mind: Sadly, the site does not provide information on current research nor on how a lay person should evaluate the several medications being ladled out rather freely for such problems. More restraint in their use seems to be indicated.

Born Dualists Yale has many Blooms, but not many Roses. Paul Bloom is a Yale cognitive psychologist who believes that we come into this world making with a epistemological structure that distinguishes between body and soul from the get-go.

Even if, in his own belief, they are just a continuum, not separate and alien parts of the human make-up. Says Bloom in Edge:.

In the domain of bodies, most of us accept that common sense is wrong. We concede that apparently solid objects are actually mostly empty space, consisting of tiny particles and fields of energy. Perhaps the same sort of reconciliation will happen in the domain of souls, and it will come to be broadly recognized that our dualist belief system, though intuitively appealing, is factually mistaken.

But I am skeptical. The notion that our souls are flesh is profoundly troubling to many, as it clashes with religion. Dualism and religion are not the same: You can be dualist without holding any other religious beliefs, and you can hold religious beliefs without being dualist. But they almost always go together.

And some very popular religious views rest on a dualist foundation, such as the belief that people survive the destruction of their bodies. If you give up on dualism, this is what you lose. The Anti-Depressants Not one peer-reviewed article really can link serotonin deficiency to any mental disorder. When you witness the hit and miss ways pharma-psychiatrists administer these drugs, you become aware that we are plagued with questions about drug effectiveness, side effects, and long term impact.

Xia Zhang at the University of Saskatchewan notes, however, that more research would be needed to see whether it could someday be used to treat depression in human beings. See SFN release on marijuana-like compounds , October 26, Nicotine may, in some instance, improve memory and counter certain diseases.

In some experiments with rats, those treated with nicotine perform better on certain functions than a control group. His research established that hormones secreted from the brain's pituitary gland promote growth. Walter Dandy, who succeeded Cushing, figured out in that air could be used to enable X-rays of the brain.

His technique remained the best way to see into the skull to identify brain tumors and other problems until the invention of computer aided tomography CAT in Another 78 Hopkins faculty have secondary or joint appointments in neuroscience, including two dozen or so whose primary appointments are in the departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery or Psychiatry.

In the Department of Neurology, there are roughly 75 primary faculty, in the Department of Neurosurgery, The Department of Psychiatry, founded almost years ago, boasts full-time faculty with primary appointments.

Participants conduct simple mathematical calculations and read aloud passages from novels—activities that stimulate their frontal cortex and can prevent dementia. There are several efforts to test the efficacy of such elder age projects. Many people from ARF have moved over to this new endeavor. Somehow it seems ironic to read about a Schizophrenia social at a recent meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Washington, but, one when gets over chuckling, one can only rejoice that this young group has a clear sense of community that will serve as a catalyst for the researchers it is abetting.

We are looking forward to getting on top of schizophrenia research trends. The researchers knew this because they had introduced a radioactive tracer that selectively binds to the same type of receptor in the brain, the mu-opioid variety, as the endorphins. More of the tracer was floating around unbound, suggesting the receptor sites were occupied by the endorphins. Mrazek, chairman of psychiatry at Mayo.

Gualberto Ruaho, president of Genomas , a company working on genetic tests for drug use. Some users of Paxil, for instance, have not been able to metabolize the drug satisfactorily, leading to toxic and sometimes fatal results. Mrazek of the Mayo Clinic said he used the tests to help choose antidepressants, particularly for children. There has been concern that some children can turn suicidal or aggressive on antidepressants….

Few offer such genetic tests though the pharmacogenomics laboratory at the University of Louisville performed to in the last year. We propose a research strategy to achieve this goal, and discuss its potential impact. The effects of developmental variations or abnormalities, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative disease can all be captured as specific structural variants of the human connectome. As a physician and scientist, he had minutely researched the mechanical aspects of running and developed training procedures built around his knowledge of the body.

Read about his training methods at Nevada Track Stats. On the fiftieth anniversary of his run, the BBC asked him if the victory was the most significant event of his life.

He withdrew from private practice and limited himself to research after a serious auto accident which also ended his running. This was in , the year in which Queen Elizabeth knighted him. His other books include Fair Play. Psychiatry and the Auto-Immune System Serguei Fetissov of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden has tied the auto-immune system to anorexia nervosa and bulimia.

There is the suspicion that a host of mental disorders can arise from autoantibodies, which have gone astray and attacked human tissue. Of course, it has become awfully popular to blame a host of ailments on wayward immunity systems, another trend that is a bit overdone. Fetissov suggests that melanocortins that carry messages between nerve cells in the brain suffer from the assault. Such fits can currently be controlled only by drugs.