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I have been in and out to the vet quite often recently and nothing seems to ease his coughing.. Having the dog groomed will keep up with the dander and the loose dead hair and this will help. His first week out at 10 months old and kept winning until his Championship. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. Thanks for your help. I am sending you much comfort and many positive thoughts and well wishes.


None of these meds dosages have needed to be changed since her original diagnosis. She sees her cardio three times a year and he does diagnostics every other visit blood work, xray and sonogram if needed. As I mentioned, Tatie sees a holistic vet as well.

Every month or two she also receives acupuncture or chiropractic in addition to the cold laser treatments. I cook for her- beef and chicken boiled, a little broccoli and pasta, and no sodium. She weighs about 8 lbs and has been on a wonderful plateau for some time now. She could not get out of the loop. It was awful…a HUGE sound, very guttural, coming from a little dog.

I took her to her cardio the very next day. He thought either the bath excitement triggered her or perhaps she aspirated a little water. What a trade off. So she needs to eat to handle the effects of a drug that upsets her belly! I should also mention that I get her meds compounded.

And so I go forth- one step at a time with Tatie. Oh, and someone mentioned something I deal with as well: Thank you all so much for posting you own stories. Support is so key to dealing with these difficult conditions. He has had CHF for over 2 years starting with massive seizures. He is on pimobenden and after reading all these posts, I have added the Enepril also which I had here on hand from Fluppy.

He takes 20 mg. Lasix per day but vet told me NOT to increase this dose since it can damage kidneys. He coughed all night and wheezed. So sad to listen to.

He got up and walked around many times, probably for water. He is on cough suppressents and also has had steroid injections. He also has Cushings Disease. Howdy is a medium sized Maltese and the largest one I have. He is just a happy go lucky kind of dog, never a problem. I am going to start cooking his food too.

I give him his meds in Liverwurst but now reading the posts about SALT, going to change that plan too…Looks like I will be making my own liverwurst too! Thanks for sharing all. Hi All, I have read your stories and feel mine may be of use.

My dog was a rescue dog from Spain a small honey coloured terrier. I homed her 7 years ago when she was roughly about 4 years old then. I had her screened two years ago when we were coming back to the Uk and the vet diagnosed a heart murmur. She was well and happy up to last Easter Monday when her resting respiratory rate was 70, coughing on exertion and she was breathing using her abdominal muscles, very lethargic and mucous membranes not pink at all.

I went to the emergency vet and she diagnosed a grossly enlarged heart and CHF. After treating with diuretics and cardisure she was released after 3 hours. She made a slow recovery on these meds but this morning she vomited 3 times loosing bile and frothy fluid she then drank three full bowls of water and her breathing was 60 per minute with blueish mucous membranes.

I went to the vet who gave me the choice of aggressive treatment or euthanasia. I am now very sad but glad she did not have to live with this condition over a longtime. She was a much loved dog but I could not stay with her I did see her shortly afterwards and she was at peace. It was a very tough decision but one which has to be taken bearing in mind the suffering of the dog. I hope if anyone reads this they will find some strength to make the hardest decision of all.

Howdy is doing MUCH better. He is even lively and wagging! He is a maltese, Poor guy is bowlegged too! I bought him in Kansas from a home breeder.

His coughing has greatly reduced using the small amount of Hycodan twice a day with the Pimobenden, Lasix and Vetrol for his Cushings Disease.

I boil his chicken with rice in the rice cooker with some garlic powder. I add doggie vitamins and he is just thrilled with his meal! God must have needed my precious baby boy because I had to send him to heaven the next day. The vet does not know what was causing it, but he was bleeding internally somewhere, possibly from the Previcox he took daily for his deteriorated spine. I miss him every second but when you love someone so much, you have to let them go instead of suffering.

Although he still eats and loves his treats. I have had to make that dreaded decision many times and it gets no easier. I think we all can sympathize with what your dealing with. I have to say my Precious coughed a lot also but all at once the cough got deeper and pretty much non-stop. Have you tried hydro codone to help suppress some of the coughing? She has been doing amazingly well thinks to the medications she has been on.

The last two days the cough has increased. She has not been to the vet for a while, so maybe we will go for a visit this morning. The coughing makes sleep difficult for both of us. Wow, I have to say you are lucky that your dog has lived to her age of I hope she lives even longer. So sorry to report that I lost my precious little girl May 7, I am having a terrible time adjusting to the loss. I miss her terribly. I am thinkful that she passed at home and in the arms of those who loved her.

My dog has chf, she is She coughs more at nite. Started on lasiz for about a week, cough continued. Will take the Vets advice for heart medication and I guess return to the lasiz also. She was on 40 mg a day, heart meds scare me because iam unsure of what might happen. She cough an gags. What medication did you have you dog on, that she lived to be amazingly 19 yrs old?? Iam beside my self of what to do.

If not for the cough my dog Cindy is fine. Plays runs around eats like a horse. Please give me an insight into the medications or combination of meds. So I will be knowledgable when I talk to my Vet. We will be devastated to loose her. What to save my dog, need to help her so bad, just breaks my heart to hear her cough so much.

And i cant do anything. Thank you so very much. Mostly your vet will start with one or two drugs and as time goes by and her coughing gets worse as it usually does they add more drugs. I am going through a similar situation but my babies heart is enlarged quite a bit. You would think with the advances we have in medicine there was more they could do.

I have to say when I wrote this article I never dreamed it would connect with so many other pet lovers. My point Sammy was a rescue, but if I had to guess he is probably He has had a cough since about 10 years ago, I thought crushed trac.

And almost like both nothing happened. I just hope he keeps ticking because although he intentionally posses everywhere in spite, I really adore him. Hi Jill, what you described are seizures. My Precious had the same thing and as time went on they did get worse. Eventually the vet determined she had low thyroid a possible cause of seizures and was started on thyroid medicine.

I wrote a post about seizures that might interest you or others who are not sure if their dog is having seizures. Sammy is lucky to have you. Blessings to you both. Thanks so much for sharing your story. He was initially diagnosed back in November as stage 2, and in May stage 3. Two weeks after receiving the stage 3 diagnosis he quickly went to a stage 4 and the cardiologist began treatment with enalapril, furosemide, and vetmedin.

He seems a little more energetic. I plan to start adding supplements such as the vitamin E, fish oils, etc that everyone has mentioned. At this time Carter was not showing all the symptoms of CHF such as coughing and wheezing, only lethargy and sleeping alot. Hopefully his condition will improve and give him some extra time with me. Thanks for your story, I was wondering when he was diagnosed with the arrhythmia did he do any tests to possible determine what the possible cause could be?

I know arrhythmia can be the result of things like hypothyroidism. My Precious had low thyroid but surprisingly when looking at her you would never guess. She really had no outward appearances of low thyroid. I suspect your vet probably feels Carter has bigger problems to worry about but I just like to mention this for other readers. Good luck, I hope Carter is with you a little longer he seems to young to have to leave you yet.

It began with a cough, and when she did not get better with antibiotics they did an x-ray which showed an enlargement. From there we had an echo with the cardiologist and she did better until April of , when she ended up in critical condition and on oxygen for several days in the hospital. Thank G-d they stabilized her and she has been on Lasix 25 mg three times a day, she is only 10 pounds, little thing, Vetmedin and Enalopril, until the Enalopril was stopped just two days to give her kidneys a break.

A couple of months ago, April , she had stomach issues and the internist diagnosed her with a gall bladder mucoecele. She needed her gall bladder out, but because of her heart failure this was not possible. So, added to the medication mix, are Denamarin and Ursodial for her gall bladder, liver and pancreas. Just two days ago, her blood levels for her kidneys were elevated so we stopped the Enalopril and are waiting for the tests for her kidneys to come back.

Thank you so much for this thread. We got through the loss together. Hi Laurel, Since your Mom has past away maybe if you just tell yourself that she wants to be with Sophia again that it will be easier to let her go. You will be in our thoughts.

Thank you Sue for your kind response and also for hosting this web page. I think it has provided not only valuable information but solace from and connection with others who understand.

She took care of me until the end. She normally shakes like crazy at the vet, but a tranquility and serenity took over, and it was her signal to me that yes, it was okay, it was time.

I was so ambivalent thinking it was too early. I have been reading all the posts, Allison I am very Interested in trying your treatment for chase. I have a rescue shitzu that was used for breeding only for seven years of her life from a puppy mill. We were allowed to get her because we have 2 dogs she could learn from , we have had her 5 years and she was supposed to be 7 when we got her. She is the most precious soulful little dog.

Just in the past couple years has she caught on that like can be grand and she seems so happy. Of course shortly after we got her we found out she had a grade 4 heart murmer and also had to have bladder stones surgically removed. She is very peppy, but has a nasty cough.

I would like to get you amounts of these supplements, Molly weighs about 17 lbs. Your help would be appreciated. Oh I forgot to mention she has a trachea problem also that when she drinks she chokes and coughs on it. Well, I believe I have found the correct site. My little tiny Dusti is a 13yr. Her cough is now turning into a high pitched sqeak where as before it was more of a hack.

She sleeps on her right side with her little left paw extended every time. I guess tomorrow I will take her to the vet. Bless all of you for we are all basically going thru the same thing. Thank you for starting this post.

It sounds like you found some comfort here, which I am glad. I hope everything goes well with Dusti at vet. Hi Sue, Took Dusti to the vet, he said her lungs sounded clearer. Must be doing something right! Then, the next day the dreaded coughing again began. I held her in my arms promising my love for her was eternal. The last week has been unbearable.

Guess I will have to take her to Dr. How old is Deenie, is it possible you can get her a new companion? Maybe an older dog if she is not that energetic anymore. Deenie is 13 also. We have an 8yr. Too busy running around trying to find Dusti. Who was her sister I try showing her more attention. We think she was maltreated as a puppy, we adopted her from the shelter when she was about a year old.

I crush her meds with a pestle, then mix with peanut butter using a miniature spatula, then use my finger to spread it on the roof of her mouth. She licks it down while I kiss her nose and tell her how much I love her.

Thanks for sharing how you get yours to take her medicine. Maybe it can help others who have tried just about everything. A soft treat you can hide a pill in. You can form them to any size. I use a syringe like a baby one, a pharmacy will just give u one if u ask Then it is so easy to administer.

Depending on the meds, do not crush! Especially tramadol, that is nasty. I often hid between a spoon full of wet food. If she got a taste of even the residue from my hands, that was it, I had a fight on my hands. She was also a dog with she wont eatpeanutbutter or butter, or cheese LOL.

So, now I make tuna salad with low sodium tuna and that slides down. Another thing that works really well is a tiny piece of wonder bread with the meds squished between it.

I would put on her wet food or dip in something meaty and that worked great for hiding the pill and hiding the taste. Good luck everyone, WHAT ever works, just some more suggestions. She has very few accidents. She started having some at first, now she can sleep all night without having one.

She is crated at night with a bowl of water and potty pads just in case. After reading these stories, I upped her Lasix just a wee bit this morning to a little over 3mg to see if that will help until I can get her back to the vet.

I think her diet may have a lot to do with it, but she is extremely picky. She wants to eat what the other dogs eat Beneful with milk bones for treats and chicken she loves chicken. And I tried the NF Kidney the vet suggested.

It is hard to keep her out of the food I feed my other two dogs. I lost her mother last year to diabetes and renal failure. I guess this is not a good idea unless you can find a good food that your dog likes that is low sodium. I did add vitamins, digestive enzymes and probiotics. I do agree CHF sucks. He is on Fortekor 2. We recently switched his food to Canine Life muffins and I have noticed a big difference with his cough.

You can buy the muffins pre-made or you can buy the mix and make them yourself. You should look into it. You can order them or you can find them at some higher end pet stores.. Well, we all seem to be in the same boat, heart failure seems to have its course no matter what we do to try to make them more comfortable. I have always fed my dogs people meat, dogs are exclusive meat eaters no matter what the vet or TV commercials say.

We boil gizzards,hearts,livers, and all meats really including chicken, vitamin pill makes up for the rest. The coughing is getting worse, and always much worse when he gets excited, his appetite has improved lately eating things he never would before, starting to get a little leaking. He has put on weight over the past three years, combination of illness, meds and no incantation to get exercise as before. I am going to increase his water pill to three times a day, it seems all we can do is make them comfortable till we can no longer do this for them.

I failed to say that those dosages are twice daily for Daisy who is 4lb Chihuahua. I also had extreme difficulty getting her to take her meds that were in pill form. She had a seizure while I was trying to get her to swallow a pill one day and then I thought of crushing them up and adding a bit of water and sucking into a syringe. She takes it very well this way. Dogs with CHF are missing an enzyme in cat food that they need for a healthy heart.

We have been giving her a little cat food with her other food and meds and it really does help ALOT. We tried seeing what she was like without it- and she did horrible- we put her back on it and she went back to her normal healthy vigorous self. The vet agreed that that it was indeed helping and to continue as long as we want. I do believe that the rabies shot that my vet gave her was what caused her heart failure. She was perfectly healthy until the day he gave her the shot- and 3 hours later- she had to be rushed to the vets another one and they saved her life.

The vet agreed that he should have never given her the shot and that many people are losing their pets right after receiving this round of rabies shots. They make it illegal so you have to give your vet the money for vaccinations. Inside pets do not need a rabies shot every 3 years. Cat are carnivores and cat food contains a lot of meat or meat by-products and high in protein. Dogs are omnivores and require a more balanced diet of meat, vegetables and carbohydrates and healthy fat like coconut oil.

The higher protein in the cat food might be the reason most dogs love it but it alsomight upset his stomach and give him diarrhea. With cat food a dog can become easily obese and you also have to worry that a high protein diet can cause kidney problems.

There are alternatives to booster vaccinations. It is a blood titer test. It test the level of antibodies to disease in their blood.

The problem with this as we all know blood work can end up being more costly than the vaccination and it is the law to have our pets vaccinated against rabies. I have to admit I am not one who vaccinates my dog every year like the postcard from the vet suggests. I just read your post. My Lexy, 13 year old 8 lb. Maltese had been living with a Grade 2 heart murmur for a few years. I do the rabies because it is required by our town for licensing.

Dogs that may not be healthy enough can get medical exemptions and they could have titer tested to confirm immunity rather than vaccinating in cases where it can cause harm.

I hope for a miracle for your little one. A year ago he stopped eating and started having seizures. He went down hill fast. I have a wonderful vet Dr. Ware who took care of him and even took him home with her as he could not be left over the weekend at her facility. When I walked in Monday everyone there was in amazement that he had pulled through.

He is on enalapril, Vetmedin, keppra, cardizem and lasix. He started coughing and quit eating and his breathing got very labored. We have now changed him over to injectable Lasix. While at the vet for the day yesterday with an iv and Lasix he came home with Lasix injections every 4 hrs and was to start today every six hours. Not able to get any of his other meds down with the exception of 1 dose of the Cardizem this afternoon.

He ate a little today. My heart breaks for him when his cough gets bad and his breathing becomes labored. Will talk to Dr. Thanks for sharing your story. I hope things will work out for you both. We are BOTH miserable. What has worked for you guys? I know things are always worse on weekends. I tried honey before without much help but at least it might help her throat. It sounds like she needs something more than just Lasix take her back to vet Monday and insist on something.

Tussigon is a great medication for the coughing, I use it up to 4 times a day. Also in a pinch I use DM cough syrup you can buy over the counter. Its the worst feeling to hear them cough like that!! Yes my Chihuahua has chf and grade 5 heart murmur. Been 9 months and he is doing quite well. On two different heart medications, lasik, cough med but must say he is holding his own! My pom Tucker is only 9 — we adopted him with a broken leg when he was about 7 months old. I discontinued his Torbutrol, but he started refusing all food…Even homemade food… He is currently on Enalapril 2.

He is still so young for a pom and is breaking our hearts that he will not eat…. My best advice is dogs like people get tired of eating the same thing so I constantly have to change recipes from chicken, beef pork or liver with different vegetables like green beans, carrots, peas and rice or orzo with some coconut oil for their healthy fat.

Sometimes I still have to put cheese on top of her food she is so picky. I lost my beloved 10 yr. Priscilla was diagnosed with tracheal collapse around age 5. She also started having seizures when she was around 4 yr. The day she passed away I noticed her breathing seemed labored. It seems 2 severe to be allergies. They had to put her on oxygen several times just to get the xray done. I turned into my driveway screaming at my husband to drive me back up to the vet as I was trying to breathe into her mouth.

So within finding out she had CHF my dog was dead less than 2 hrs. Needless to say, I was devastated! I was hysterical, inconsolable. It was a nightmare. I have adopted a new Chihuahua. I was in such agony I felt I needed another companion. I adopted my Roxie from a shelter with a very high euthanasia rate. She does the tell tale honking cough of trachea collapse. Over the last 3 wks. Thank you for reading this very long comment.

It was probably 5 wks. I have to tell you almost the same thing happened to me. I rescued a 6 year old Pomeranian who also had kennel cough forever. She gets excited and coughs all the time. My vet did say she had allergies which I have to agree but she also has the beginning of collapsing trachea. She also has frequent episodes of reverse sneezing which I know many dogs have but they only last a few minutes but hers last hours where I have to take her to the vet for a steroid shot.

My point of all this is I guess instead of thinking we chose this dog perhaps somehow this dog chose us because they knew what love and commitment we gave to our previous pet. It may be another uphill battle with their health but I know you can do it, as can I. I like to think that your Priscilla much like my Precious chose that time to make room for your next pet who needs you just as much. I thank God everyday for sending me Precious 2, can you believe since she was a stray with no name I named her Precious because she looks just like Precious 1.

Good luck give Roxie my love. Sue, Thank u so very much for your heartfelt response. Though I cried while reading most of it, it also brought me a lot of peace. I think I really needed to write my story to move on a little.

Also reaching out to someone who has been through similar experiences seems to help. Your words are so helpful to me. Priscilla may have left to make room for Roxie. That is a positive way to look at it.

She looks like she has black eyeliner around her eyes, has the sweetest face. When I saw her standing in the corner, her whole body shivering I knew I had to adopt her. She is very protective of my other dog a pitbull- yeah, funny! So I have to remind him not to do that in front of her- at least not yet. She is learning to trust, slowly. Funny, she has no problems with children at all, fast moving or not.

My one saving grace with the way Priscilla went is that it was so fast. I got her while my son was in the hospital just after he was born as a preemie. So I kind of got 2 babies at the same time. It was a hard time for our whole family. She won over everyone who met her. Even my brother in law, whom swore he hated little dogs, loved her dearly. She was a joy to have around. Roxie is here warming my lap. So you are right in that she knew I was meant to be her mommy.

She is part of our family now. Perhaps Priscilla knew how painful it would of been for you to make that decision to put her down and leaving when she did was her last way of thanking you for your love and trying to spare you that pain.

Blessings to you also. Hi Sue, I understand exactly how you feel,my beautiful Lil 10 year old Pomeranian Chester was diagnosed with heart failure in January this year. It broke my heart literally when the vet told me he had that as well as fluid in his lungs. They are not a dog in the sense of a dog, they are your best friend, a most wonderful companion and have a face that lights up your heart with a single smile.

Until he strutted his stuff on the end of lead in front of me. I had to ask about him, it was like he was willing me to. Anyway, turned out he was looking for a new home. Now, I also rescued and rehomed cats at that time , I sat down on the grass talking to the lady when he jumped into my lap, looked up at me and smiled.

I asked if I could take him home and see how he got on with the mob, who were used to dogs. I put him down in the house, the cats all circled him, looked him up and down, looked at me and walked away, he was approved of,I rang the lady and just said he is staying.

That was the start of a love affair to last a lifetime. We have been inseparable,Chester goes everywhere, does everything and has friends everywhere. By the time we got there he was back in the land of the living. He was put on oxygen for 2 hours and was in intensive care overnight, the vet kept in touch through out the night until he stabilized at 3am, my baby boy was back with me the next day.

Chester had another bad turn in August, once again another rush job to the vets, more oxygen, this time he had to share with me as I was holding it on him and I started to feel faint. Bad news, his Lil heart had enlarged a wee bit more and there was thickening of the lungs, he was in final stage heart failure. I was told every day with him was a bonus and he had maybe 6 months.

His weight had dropped to 3. After a night of crying and cuddling my baby boy I was willing to try anything. She has cured dogs with heart failure the natural way, I had nothing to lose except Chester. Amanda was wonderful, she had been thru the same thing with two of her dogs.

I did everything she said to do until I got his bundle of goodies from her. La vecchia forma libraria a rotolo scompare in ambito librario. In forma notevolmente differente permane invece in ambito archivistico. Nel Medioevo si fanno strada alcune innovazioni: Il prezzo molto basso di questo materiale, ricavato da stracci e quindi più abbondante della pergamena, ne favorisce la diffusione.

Ma bisogna aspettare la seconda metà del XV secolo per incontrare il processo di stampa tradizionalmente attribuito ad un'invenzione del tedesco Gutenberg.

Questo mezzo, permettendo l'accelerazione della produzione delle copie di testi contribuisce alla diffusione del libro e della cultura.

La parola membranae , letteralmente "pelli", è il nome che i romani diedero al codex di pergamena ; il dono che i citati distici dovevano accompagnare era quasi sicuramente una copia dell'opera completa di Marziale, quindici libri in forma di codice e non di rotolo, più comune in quell'epoca.

Altri suoi distici rivelano che tra i regali fatti da Marziale c'erano copie di Virgilio , di Cicerone e Livio. Le parole di Marziale danno la distinta impressione che tali edizioni fossero qualcosa di recentemente introdotto. Quando c'era bisogno di più spazio di quello offerto da una singola tavoletta, gli scribi ne aggiungevano altre, impilate una sopra all'altra e legate insieme con una corda che passava nei buchi precedentemente forati su uno dei margini: Sono stati rinvenuti "taccuini" contenenti fino a dieci tavolette.

Nel tempo, furono anche disponibili modelli di lusso fatti con tavolette di avorio invece che di legno. Ad un certo punto i romani inventarono un taccuino più leggero e meno ingombrante, sostituendo legno o avorio con fogli di pergamena: Il passo fu breve dall'usare due o tre fogli come taccuino al legarne insieme una certa quantità per trascrivere testi estesi - in altre parole, creando un codex nel senso proprio che usiamo oggigiorno.

Ai romani va il merito di aver compiuto questo passo essenziale, e devono averlo fatto alcuni decenni prima della fine del I secolo d. Il grande vantaggio che offrivano rispetto ai rolli era la capienza, vantaggio che sorgeva dal fatto che la facciata esterna del rotolo era lasciata in bianco, vuota. Il codice invece aveva scritte entrambe le facciate di ogni pagina, come in un libro moderno. La prima pagina porta il volto del poeta. I codici di cui parlava erano fatti di pergamena ; nei distici che accompagnavano il regalo di una copia di Omero , per esempio, Marziale la descrive come fatta di "cuoio con molte pieghe".

Ma copie erano anche fatte di fogli di papiro. In Egitto , dove cresceva la pianta del papiro ed era centro della sua manifattura per materiale scrittorio, il codex di tale materiale era naturalmente più comune della pergamena: Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena. È quindi logico credere che la stessa preferenza venisse usata per il codex quando questo divenne disponibile.

I ritrovamenti egiziani ci permettono di tracciare il graduale rimpiazzo del rotolo da parte del codice. Fece la sua comparsa in Egitto non molto dopo il tempo di Marziale, nel II secolo d. Il suo debutto fu modesto. A tutt'oggi sono stati rinvenuti 1. Verso il d. Il rotolo comunque aveva ancora parecchi secoli davanti a sé, ma solo per documenti; quello che la gente leggeva per piacere, edificazione o istruzione era praticamente tutto su codici. I ritrovamenti egiziani gettano luce anche sulla transizione del codex dal papiro alla pergamena.

Sebbene gli undici codici della Bibbia datati in quel secolo fossero papiracei, esistono circa 18 codici dello stesso secolo con scritti pagani e quattro di questi sono in pergamena. Non ne scegliemmo alcuno, ma ne raccogliemmo altri otto per i quali gli diedi dracme in conto. Deios, a quanto pare un libraio ambulante, voleva vendere una quantità di almeno quattordici codici di pergamena, che interessavano un residente del villaggio egiziano.

Il codex tanto apprezzato da Marziale aveva quindi fatto molta strada da Roma. Nel terzo secolo, quando tali codici divennero alquanto diffusi, quelli di pergamena iniziarono ad essere popolari.

In breve, anche in Egitto , la fonte mondiale del papiro , il codice di pergamena occupava una notevole quota di mercato. I codici più antichi che sono sopravvissuti fuori dall'Egitto risalgono al quarto e quinto secolo d.

Sono tutti di pergamena, edizioni eleganti, scritti in elaborata calligrafia su sottili fogli di pergamena. Per tali edizioni di lusso il papiro era certamente inadatto. In almeno un'area, la giurisprudenza romana , il codex di pergamena veniva prodotto sia in edizioni economiche che in quelle di lusso. Titoli di compilazioni celebri, il Codice teodosiano promulgato nel , ed il Codice giustinianeo promulgato nel , indicano che gli imperatori li facevano scrivere su codici, sicuramente di pergamena dato che erano più duraturi e più capienti e inoltre di ottima qualità, dato che erano prodotti sotto l'egida dell'imperatore.

Dall'altro lato, basandoci sulle annotazioni di Libanio , intellettuale del IV secolo che nelle sue molteplici attività faceva anche l'insegnante di legge , si apprende che i libri di testo dei suoi studenti erano codici di pergamena.

Le ragioni erano buone: La caduta dell'Impero romano nel V secolo d. Il papiro divenne difficile da reperire a causa della mancanza di contatti con l' Antico Egitto e la pergamena , che per secoli era stata tenuta in secondo piano, divenne il materiale di scrittura principale.

I monasteri continuarono la tradizione scritturale latina dell' Impero romano d'Occidente. La tradizione e lo stile dell' Impero romano predominava ancora, ma gradualmente emerse la cultura del libro medievale. I monaci irlandesi introdussero la spaziatura tra le parole nel VII secolo. Essi adottarono questo sistema perché leggevano con difficoltà le parole latine.

L'innovazione fu poi adottata anche nei Paesi neolatini come l'Italia , anche se non divenne comune prima del XII secolo. Si ritiene che l'inserimento di spazi tra le parole abbia favorito il passaggio dalla lettura semi-vocalizzata a quella silenziosa. Prima dell'invenzione e della diffusione del torchio tipografico , quasi tutti i libri venivano copiati a mano, il che li rendeva costosi e relativamente rari.

I piccoli monasteri di solito possedevano al massimo qualche decina di libri, forse qualche centinaio quelli di medie dimensioni. In Età carolingia le più grandi collezioni raccoglievano circa volumi; nel Basso Medioevo la biblioteca pontificia di Avignone e la biblioteca della Sorbona di Parigi possedevano circa 2. Il processo della produzione di un libro era lungo e laborioso. Il supporto di scrittura più usato nell'Alto Medioevo, la pergamena, o vellum pelle di vitello , doveva essere preparato, poi le pagine libere venivano pianificate e rigate con uno strumento appuntito o un piombo , dopo di che il testo era scritto dallo scriba , che di solito lasciava aree vuote a scopo illustrativo e rubricativo.

Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore [26]. Le copertine erano fatte di legno e ricoperte di cuoio. Poiché la pergamena secca tende ad assumere la forma che aveva prima della trasformazione, i libri erano dotati di fermagli o cinghie. In quest'epoca si usavano differenti tipi di inchiostro , usualmente preparati con fuliggine e gomma, e più tardi anche con noce di galla e solfato ferroso.

Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature. A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus. Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta.

Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolai , che produssero sia materiale religioso che profano [28]. Nelle prime biblioteche pubbliche i libri venivano spesso incatenati ad una libreria o scrivania per impedirne il furto. Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati. Vedi illustrazione a margine.

L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Secondo la tradizione ebraica, il rotolo della Torah posto nella sinagoga deve esser scritto a mano su pergamena e quindi un libro stampato non è permesso, sebbene la congregazione possa usare libri di preghiere stampati e copie della Bibbia ebraica possano esser utilizzate per studio fuori della sinagoga.

Lo scriba ebraico sofer è altamente rispettato nell'ambito della comunità ebraica osservante. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamico , sviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia araba , miniatura e legatoria. Un certo numero di città del mondo islamico medievale furono sede di centri di produzione libraria e di mercati del libro.

Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa". In xilografia , un'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intarsiata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina. Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cina , durante la Dinastia Han prima del a. Il libro più antico stampato con questo sistema è il Sutra del Diamante d.

I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. Questa invenzione gradualmente rese i libri meno laboriosi e meno costosi da produrre e più ampiamente disponibili.

La stampa è una delle prime e più importanti forme di produzione in serie. I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli.

Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsa , il leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenati , Biblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. The soft undercoat is what sheds. These two coats grow independently of one another and to different lengths. The outer coat is longer and grows slower.

The undercoat is shorter and grows faster and sheds twice a year. The double coated dogs have sensitive skin. Their thick hair protects the dog from the sun, bug bites and things it can pick up in the grass. Shaving can cause hot spots, make them lick excessevely and make them miseriable. Double coated dogs shed twice a year and that is undercoat. Shaving them does not prevent this from happening.

It damages the coat. Have your dog groomed on a schedule to remove all the dead undercoat to provide a healthy coat. The undercaot is all that is left when you shave a dog and as it grows faster than the outer coat, it takes a very long time for the outer coat to catch up if at all.

Some dogs never grow the under coat back properly leaving the coat sparse and ugly. It damges the cycle of the hair making shedding time unpredictable. If you do not like hair research before buying. The hair of a dog serves a purpose and is part of the package.

The undercoat provides insulation in the winter and cools the dog in the summer. A well groomed dog with no dead undercoat keeps the dog warm in the winter by providing and keeping the skin dry. In the summer it provides a sort of air conditioning system, keeping the dog cool. This means he needs to be not shaved. The dog is not going to be hot with all that hair-its actually keeping the dog cool and protected.

If the dog is not shaved or serverly matted, his coat will do the job and keep his temperature regulated. A dog in full, beautiful flowing coat is much more attractive. Shaving makes you stand out as a dog owner who is not doing their research or the best thing for their dog. Be proud of your dog and his glorious coat and how educated you are on why he needs that coat.

Shaving because you are allergic does not make sense. The dander of the dog is what you are allergic to and having it right on the surface is not going to help your allergies. Having the dog groomed will keep up with the dander and the loose dead hair and this will help.

A dog cannot tell you that shaving him makes him uncomfortably hot or gives him pain or sunburn but I can and hope to educate as many owners as possible. Please Note all human drugs are not safe for your dog or puppy. I am not a Veterinarian, always consult with your Veterinarian first.

These drugs can cause serious illness and are potentially fatal. Keep human and dog drugs in different locations. It's easy to grab the wrong bottle if they're next to each other on the shelf. If you carry drugs in your bag or purse, place it someplace high. If you use a seven-day pill container, store it out of reach. Dogs often think it's a toy.

Do Not assume children's medicine is safe. Species differences are significant enough that medications safe for children can still harm or kill dogs. Also remember Spring can be harmful to your pets with such things as toxic bulbs including tulips, hyacinths, daffodils, certain lilies, crocus and lily of the valley.

Harmful fertilizers and ground cover include cocoa mulch, bloodmeal, bonemeal and any fertilizer that contains disulfoton or organophosphates. Confetti can be ingested, causing havoc to the digestive tract. Some flowers and plants can be toxic to animals. Chocolate contains theoboromine and can cause serious illness and is often fatal to pets. Make sure all pets are inside during the night of Halloween, keep your pets away from the doors.

Foil wraps on candies can cause internal injuries. Foil wrapped candy can be like a razor as it is swallowed. Keep all candies in a secured place. Candles can be knocked over, spilling hot wax, causing serious burns. Costumes which have rubber bands can be accidently left on pets. The pet could chew off and swallow them, causing chocking or intestinal injuries. The bands can become embedded into the pet's flesh.

Six to eight weeks before Halloween each year is extremely dangerous for all animals, but especially cats Please, PLEASE take additioanl precautions to make sure your cats or other pets are safe during this holiday season, especially black cats.

Watch hot containers filled with turkey and ham drippings. Tipped containers can cause servere scalding and burns. Do not feed the cooled drippings, it upsets pet's digestive systems. Do not feed even a taste of left over turkey and stuffing-onions can lead to anenia in dogs and fatty rich foods can cause pancreatitis.

Poulty bones are dangerous, splintered bones cause pain and sometimes death. Artifical snow and snow flock also has low toxicity.

Tinsel is not toxic, but if ingested, intestinal obstruction and choking are potential problems. Ribbons tied around pets necks can tighted resulting in chocking or they can hang themselves if the ribbon is caught on an object.

The frightening noise and the danger of exploding fireworks are hazardous to your pet. Christmas greens such as balsam, juniper, ceder, pine and fir - all parts have a low level of toxicity; hibiscus may cause vomiting or bloodly diarrhea if ingested. Poinsettias, leaves and stems low in toxicity. It is wise to keep plants out of reach of children and pets. You need time, peace and quiet to spend with your new life-time commitment.

Some symptoms can also take as much as 8 hours to show up. Be aware of household product.