Your Digestive System

What is the digestive system?

Digestive System
This allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes. Fluids Bile Pancreatic juice. In the omasum, water and many of the inorganic mineral elements are absorbed into the blood stream. Here it is mixed with gastric acid until it passes into the duodenum where it is mixed with a number of enzymes produced by the pancreas. The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract. Digestion is a form of catabolism that is often divided into two processes based on how food is broken down:

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Function of the Digestive System

It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens , which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, which develops the crown gall tumor. The nitrogen fixing Rhizobia are an interesting case, wherein conjugative elements naturally engage in inter- kingdom conjugation.

Such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter the plant cell nucleus and effectively transform the plant cells into factories for the production of opines , which the bacteria use as carbon and energy sources. Infected plant cells form crown gall or root tumors.

The Ti and Ri plasmids are thus endosymbionts of the bacteria, which are in turn endosymbionts or parasites of the infected plant. The Ti and Ri plasmids are themselves conjugative.

Ti and Ri transfer between bacteria uses an independent system the tra , or transfer, operon from that for inter-kingdom transfer the vir , or virulence , operon. Such transfer creates virulent strains from previously avirulent Agrobacteria. In addition to the use of the multiprotein complexes listed above, Gram-negative bacteria possess another method for release of material: Vesicles from a number of bacterial species have been found to contain virulence factors, some have immunomodulatory effects, and some can directly adhere to and intoxicate host cells.

While release of vesicles has been demonstrated as a general response to stress conditions, the process of loading cargo proteins seems to be selective.

The gastrovascular cavity functions as a stomach in both digestion and the distribution of nutrients to all parts of the body. Extracellular digestion takes place within this central cavity, which is lined with the gastrodermis, the internal layer of epithelium.

This cavity has only one opening to the outside that functions as both a mouth and an anus: In a plant such as the Venus Flytrap that can make its own food through photosynthesis, it does not eat and digest its prey for the traditional objectives of harvesting energy and carbon, but mines prey primarily for essential nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in particular that are in short supply in its boggy, acidic habitat.

A phagosome is a vacuole formed around a particle absorbed by phagocytosis. The vacuole is formed by the fusion of the cell membrane around the particle. A phagosome is a cellular compartment in which pathogenic microorganisms can be killed and digested. Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes in their maturation process, forming phagolysosomes. In humans, Entamoeba histolytica can phagocytose red blood cells.

To aid in the digestion of their food animals evolved organs such as beaks, tongues , teeth, a crop, gizzard, and others. Birds have bony beaks that are specialised according to the bird's ecological niche.

For example, macaws primarily eat seeds, nuts, and fruit, using their impressive beaks to open even the toughest seed. First they scratch a thin line with the sharp point of the beak, then they shear the seed open with the sides of the beak. The mouth of the squid is equipped with a sharp horny beak mainly made of cross-linked proteins. It is used to kill and tear prey into manageable pieces.

The beak is very robust, but does not contain any minerals, unlike the teeth and jaws of many other organisms, including marine species. The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing mastication and swallowing deglutition.

It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva. The underside of the tongue is covered with a smooth mucous membrane. The tongue also has a touch sense for locating and positioning food particles that require further chewing.

The tongue is utilized to roll food particles into a bolus before being transported down the esophagus through peristalsis. The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is a location where the oral mucosa is very thin, and underlain by a plexus of veins. This is an ideal location for introducing certain medications to the body.

The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. Teeth singular tooth are small whitish structures found in the jaws or mouths of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food.

Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of tissues of varying density and hardness, such as enamel, dentine and cementum. Human teeth have a blood and nerve supply which enables proprioception. This is the ability of sensation when chewing, for example if we were to bite into something too hard for our teeth, such as a chipped plate mixed in food, our teeth send a message to our brain and we realise that it cannot be chewed, so we stop trying.

The shapes, sizes and numbers of types of animals' teeth are related to their diets. For example, herbivores have a number of molars which are used to grind plant matter, which is difficult to digest.

Carnivores have canine teeth which are used to kill and tear meat. A crop , or croup, is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.

In some birds it is an expanded, muscular pouch near the gullet or throat. In adult doves and pigeons, the crop can produce crop milk to feed newly hatched birds. Certain insects may have a crop or enlarged esophagus.

Herbivores have evolved cecums or an abomasum in the case of ruminants. Ruminants have a fore-stomach with four chambers. These are the rumen , reticulum , omasum , and abomasum. In the first two chambers, the rumen and the reticulum, the food is mixed with saliva and separates into layers of solid and liquid material. Solids clump together to form the cud or bolus. The cud is then regurgitated, chewed slowly to completely mix it with saliva and to break down the particle size.

Fibre, especially cellulose and hemi-cellulose , is primarily broken down into the volatile fatty acids , acetic acid , propionic acid and butyric acid in these chambers the reticulo-rumen by microbes: In the omasum, water and many of the inorganic mineral elements are absorbed into the blood stream.

The abomasum is the fourth and final stomach compartment in ruminants. It is a close equivalent of a monogastric stomach e. It serves primarily as a site for acid hydrolysis of microbial and dietary protein, preparing these protein sources for further digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Digesta is finally moved into the small intestine, where the digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs. Microbes produced in the reticulo-rumen are also digested in the small intestine.

Regurgitation has been mentioned above under abomasum and crop, referring to crop milk, a secretion from the lining of the crop of pigeons and doves with which the parents feed their young by regurgitation. Many sharks have the ability to turn their stomachs inside out and evert it out of their mouths in order to get rid of unwanted contents perhaps developed as a way to reduce exposure to toxins.

Other animals, such as rabbits and rodents , practise coprophagia behaviours — eating specialised faeces in order to re-digest food, especially in the case of roughage. Capybara, rabbits, hamsters and other related species do not have a complex digestive system as do, for example, ruminants.

Instead they extract more nutrition from grass by giving their food a second pass through the gut. Soft faecal pellets of partially digested food are excreted and generally consumed immediately. They also produce normal droppings, which are not eaten. Young elephants, pandas, koalas, and hippos eat the faeces of their mother, probably to obtain the bacteria required to properly digest vegetation.

When they are born, their intestines do not contain these bacteria they are completely sterile. Without them, they would be unable to get any nutritional value from many plant components. An earthworm 's digestive system consists of a mouth , pharynx , esophagus , crop , gizzard , and intestine. The mouth is surrounded by strong lips, which act like a hand to grab pieces of dead grass, leaves, and weeds, with bits of soil to help chew.

The lips break the food down into smaller pieces. In the pharynx, the food is lubricated by mucus secretions for easier passage. The esophagus adds calcium carbonate to neutralize the acids formed by food matter decay. Temporary storage occurs in the crop where food and calcium carbonate are mixed. The powerful muscles of the gizzard churn and mix the mass of food and dirt. When the churning is complete, the glands in the walls of the gizzard add enzymes to the thick paste, which helps chemically breakdown the organic matter.

By peristalsis , the mixture is sent to the intestine where friendly bacteria continue chemical breakdown. This releases carbohydrates, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals for absorption into the body. In most vertebrates , digestion is a multistage process in the digestive system, starting from ingestion of raw materials, most often other organisms. Ingestion usually involves some type of mechanical and chemical processing.

Digestion is separated into four steps:. Underlying the process is muscle movement throughout the system through swallowing and peristalsis. Each step in digestion requires energy, and thus imposes an "overhead charge" on the energy made available from absorbed substances. Differences in that overhead cost are important influences on lifestyle, behavior, and even physical structures.

Examples may be seen in humans, who differ considerably from other hominids lack of hair, smaller jaws and musculature, different dentition, length of intestines, cooking, etc.

The major part of digestion takes place in the small intestine. The large intestine primarily serves as a site for fermentation of indigestible matter by gut bacteria and for resorption of water from digests before excretion. In mammals , preparation for digestion begins with the cephalic phase in which saliva is produced in the mouth and digestive enzymes are produced in the stomach.

Mechanical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth where food is chewed , and mixed with saliva to begin enzymatic processing of starches. The stomach continues to break food down mechanically and chemically through churning and mixing with both acids and enzymes. Absorption occurs in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract , and the process finishes with defecation.

The human gastrointestinal tract is around 9 meters long. Food digestion physiology varies between individuals and upon other factors such as the characteristics of the food and size of the meal, and the process of digestion normally takes between 24 and 72 hours. Digestion begins in the mouth with the secretion of saliva and its digestive enzymes.

Food is formed into a bolus by the mechanical mastication and swallowed into the esophagus from where it enters the stomach through the action of peristalsis. Gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin which would damage the walls of the stomach and mucus is secreted for protection. In the stomach further release of enzymes break down the food further and this is combined with the churning action of the stomach.

The partially digested food enters the duodenum as a thick semi-liquid chyme. In the small intestine, the larger part of digestion takes place and this is helped by the secretions of bile , pancreatic juice and intestinal juice.

The intestinal walls are lined with villi , and their epithelial cells is covered with numerous microvilli to improve the absorption of nutrients by increasing the surface area of the intestine. In the large intestine the passage of food is slower to enable fermentation by the gut flora to take place.

Here water is absorbed and waste material stored as feces to be removed by defecation via the anal canal and anus. Different phases of digestion take place including: The cephalic phase occurs at the sight, thought and smell of food, which stimulate the cerebral cortex. Taste and smell stimuli are sent to the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. After this it is routed through the vagus nerve and release of acetylcholine.

Acidity in the stomach is not buffered by food at this point and thus acts to inhibit parietal secretes acid and G cell secretes gastrin activity via D cell secretion of somatostatin. The gastric phase takes 3 to 4 hours. It is stimulated by distension of the stomach, presence of food in stomach and decrease in pH. Also of importance is the presence in saliva of the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase.

Amylase starts to work on the starch in carbohydrates , breaking it down into the simple sugars of maltose and dextrose that can be further broken down in the small intestine. Lipase starts to work on breaking down fats. Lipase is further produced in the pancreas where it is released to continue this digestion of fats. The presence of salivary lipase is of prime importance in young babies whose pancreatic lipase has yet to be developed. As well as its role in supplying digestive enzymes , saliva has a cleansing action for the teeth and mouth.

Saliva also contains a glycoprotein called haptocorrin which is a binding protein to vitamin B When it reaches the duodenum, pancreatic enzymes break down the glycoprotein and free the vitamin which then binds with intrinsic factor.

Food enters the mouth where the first stage in the digestive process takes place, with the action of the tongue and the secretion of saliva. The tongue is a fleshy and muscular sensory organ , and the very first sensory information is received via the taste buds in the papillae on its surface. If the taste is agreeable, the tongue will go into action, manipulating the food in the mouth which stimulates the secretion of saliva from the salivary glands.

The liquid quality of the saliva will help in the softening of the food and its enzyme content will start to break down the food whilst it is still in the mouth. The first part of the food to be broken down is the starch of carbohydrates by the enzyme amylase in the saliva. The tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth by a ligamentous band called the frenum [5] and this gives it great mobility for the manipulation of food and speech ; the range of manipulation is optimally controlled by the action of several muscles and limited in its external range by the stretch of the frenum.

The tongue's two sets of muscles, are four intrinsic muscles that originate in the tongue and are involved with its shaping, and four extrinsic muscles originating in bone that are involved with its movement. Taste is a form of chemoreception that takes place in the specialised taste receptors , contained in structures called taste buds in the mouth.

Taste buds are mainly on the upper surface dorsum of the tongue. The function of taste perception is vital to help prevent harmful or rotten foods from being consumed. There are also taste buds on the epiglottis and upper part of the esophagus.

The taste buds are innervated by a branch of the facial nerve the chorda tympani , and the glossopharyngeal nerve. Taste messages are sent via these cranial nerves to the brain.

The brain can distinguish between the chemical qualities of the food. The five basic tastes are referred to as those of saltiness , sourness , bitterness , sweetness , and umami. The detection of saltiness and sourness enables the control of salt and acid balance. The detection of bitterness warns of poisons—many of a plant's defences are of poisonous compounds that are bitter. Sweetness guides to those foods that will supply energy; the initial breakdown of the energy-giving carbohydrates by salivary amylase creates the taste of sweetness since simple sugars are the first result.

The taste of umami is thought to signal protein-rich food. Sour tastes are acidic which is often found in bad food. The brain has to decide very quickly whether the food should be eaten or not. It was the findings in , describing the first olfactory receptors that helped to prompt the research into taste.

The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells. It is assumed that signals from taste receptors work together with those from the nose, to form an idea of complex food flavours. Teeth are complex structures made of materials specific to them.

They are made of a bone-like material called dentin , which is covered by the hardest tissue in the body— enamel. This results in a much larger surface area for the action of digestive enzymes.

The teeth are named after their particular roles in the process of mastication— incisors are used for cutting or biting off pieces of food; canines , are used for tearing, premolars and molars are used for chewing and grinding. Mastication of the food with the help of saliva and mucus results in the formation of a soft bolus which can then be swallowed to make its way down the upper gastrointestinal tract to the stomach.

The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage attached to the entrance of the larynx. It is covered with a mucous membrane and there are taste buds on its lingual surface which faces into the mouth.

The epiglottis functions to guard the entrance of the glottis , the opening between the vocal folds. It is normally pointed upward during breathing with its underside functioning as part of the pharynx, but during swallowing, the epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position, with its upper side functioning as part of the pharynx.

In this manner it prevents food from going into the trachea and instead directs it to the esophagus, which is behind. During swallowing, the backward motion of the tongue forces the epiglottis over the glottis' opening to prevent any food that is being swallowed from entering the larynx which leads to the lungs; the larynx is also pulled upwards to assist this process.

Stimulation of the larynx by ingested matter produces a strong cough reflex in order to protect the lungs. The pharynx is a part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system and also a part of the digestive system. It is the part of the throat immediately behind the nasal cavity at the back of the mouth and above the esophagus and larynx.

The pharynx is made up of three parts. The lower two parts—the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx are involved in the digestive system. The laryngopharynx connects to the esophagus and it serves as a passageway for both air and food.

Air enters the larynx anteriorly but anything swallowed has priority and the passage of air is temporarily blocked. The pharynx is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve. The pharynx joins the esophagus at the oesophageal inlet which is located behind the cricoid cartilage. The esophagus , commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.

The esophagus is continuous with the laryngopharynx. It passes through the posterior mediastinum in the thorax and enters the stomach through a hole in the thoracic diaphragm —the esophageal hiatus , at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra T It is divided into cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts. The pharynx joins the esophagus at the esophageal inlet which is behind the cricoid cartilage.

At rest the esophagus is closed at both ends, by the upper and lower esophageal sphincters. The opening of the upper sphincter is triggered by the swallowing reflex so that food is allowed through. The sphincter also serves to prevent back flow from the esophagus into the pharynx.

The esophagus has a mucous membrane and the epithelium which has a protective function is continuously replaced due to the volume of food that passes inside the esophagus. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus. The epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position to direct the food into the esophagus, and away from the trachea. Once in the esophagus, the bolus travels down to the stomach via rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles known as peristalsis.

The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular sphincter surrounding the lower part of the esophagus. The junction between the esophagus and the stomach the gastroesophageal junction is controlled by the lower esophageal sphincter, which remains constricted at all times other than during swallowing and vomiting to prevent the contents of the stomach from entering the esophagus.

As the esophagus does not have the same protection from acid as the stomach, any failure of this sphincter can lead to heartburn. The esophagus has a mucous membrane of epithelium which has a protective function as well as providing a smooth surface for the passage of food.

Due to the high volume of food that is passed over time, this membrane is continuously renewed. The diaphragm is an important part of the body's digestive system. The muscular diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity where most of the digestive organs are located.

The suspensory muscle attaches the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm. This muscle is thought to be of help in the digestive system in that its attachment offers a wider angle to the duodenojejunal flexure for the easier passage of digesting material. The diaphragm also attaches to, and anchors the liver at its bare area. The esophagus enters the abdomen through a hole in the diaphragm at the level of T The stomach is a major organ of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system.

It is a consistently J-shaped organ joined to the esophagus at its upper end and to the duodenum at its lower end. Gastric acid informally gastric juice , produced in the stomach plays a vital role in the digestive process, and mainly contains hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride. A peptide hormone , gastrin , produced by G cells in the gastric glands , stimulates the production of gastric juice which activates the digestive enzymes.

Pepsinogen is a precursor enzyme zymogen produced by the gastric chief cells , and gastric acid activates this to the enzyme pepsin which begins the digestion of proteins. As these two chemicals would damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by innumerable gastric glands in the stomach, to provide a slimy protective layer against the damaging effects of the chemicals on the inner layers of the stomach.

At the same time that protein is being digested, mechanical churning occurs through the action of peristalsis , waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. This allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes.

Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in contrast with the alkaline pancreatic lipase. This breaks down fats to some degree though is not as efficient as the pancreatic lipase. The pylorus , the lowest section of the stomach which attaches to the duodenum via the pyloric canal , contains countless glands which secrete digestive enzymes including gastrin.

After an hour or two, a thick semi-liquid called chyme is produced. When the pyloric sphincter , or valve opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes further with digestive enzymes from the pancreas, and then passes through the small intestine, where digestion continues. When the chyme is fully digested, it is absorbed into the blood. Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon of the large intestine, where the environment is slightly acidic.

Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K produced by bacteria in the gut flora of the colon are also absorbed. The parietal cells in the fundus of the stomach, produce a glycoprotein called intrinsic factor which is essential for the absorption of vitamin B Vitamin B12 cobalamin , is carried to, and through the stomach, bound to a glycoprotein secreted by the salivary glands - transcobalamin I also called haptocorrin , which protects the acid-sensitive vitamin from the acidic stomach contents.

Once in the more neutral duodenum, pancreatic enzymes break down the protective glycoprotein. The freed vitamin B12 then binds to intrinsic factor which is then absorbed by the enterocytes in the ileum. The stomach is a distensible organ and can normally expand to hold about one litre of food. The stomach of a newborn baby will only be able to expand to retain about 30 ml. The spleen breaks down both red and white blood cells that are spent. This is why it is sometimes known as the 'graveyard of red blood cells'.

A product of this digestion is the pigment bilirubin , which is sent to the liver and secreted in the bile. Another product is iron , which is used in the formation of new blood cells in the bone marrow. The liver is the second largest organ after the skin and is an accessory digestive gland which plays a role in the body's metabolism. The liver has many functions some of which are important to digestion. The liver can detoxify various metabolites ; synthesise proteins and produce biochemicals needed for digestion.

It regulates the storage of glycogen which it can form from glucose glycogenesis. The liver can also synthesise glucose from certain amino acids. Its digestive functions are largely involved with the breaking down of carbohydrates. It also maintains protein metabolism in its synthesis and degradation.

In lipid metabolism it synthesises cholesterol. Fats are also produced in the process of lipogenesis. The liver synthesises the bulk of lipoproteins. The liver is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen and below the diaphragm to which it is attached at one part, This is to the right of the stomach and it overlies the gall bladder.

The liver produces bile , an important alkaline compound which aids digestion. Bile acts partly as a surfactant which lowers the surface tension between either two liquids or a solid and a liquid and helps to emulsify the fats in the chyme. Food fat is dispersed by the action of bile into smaller units called micelles. The breaking down into micelles creates a much larger surface area for the pancreatic enzyme, lipase to work on. Lipase digests the triglycerides which are broken down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride.

These are then absorbed by villi on the intestinal wall. If fats are not absorbed in this way in the small intestine problems can arise later in the large intestine which is not equipped to absorb fats.

Bile also helps in the absorption of vitamin K from the diet. Bile is collected and delivered through the common hepatic duct. This duct joins with the cystic duct to connect in a common bile duct with the gallbladder.

Bile is stored in the gallbladder for release when food is discharged into the duodenum and also after a few hours. The gallbladder is a hollow part of the biliary tract that sits just beneath the liver, with the gallbladder body resting in a small depression. Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to cholecystokinin CCK a peptide hormone released from the duodenum.

The production of CCK by endocrine cells of the duodenum is stimulated by the presence of fat in the duodenum. It is divided into three sections, a fundus, body and neck. The neck tapers and connects to the biliary tract via the cystic duct , which then joins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct.

At this junction is a mucosal fold called Hartmann's pouch , where gallstones commonly get stuck. The muscular layer of the body is of smooth muscle tissue that helps the gallbladder contract, so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct.

The gallbladder needs to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all times. Hydrogen ions secreted from the inner lining of the gallbladder keep the bile acidic enough to prevent hardening. To dilute the bile, water and electrolytes from the digestion system are added. Also, salts attach themselves to cholesterol molecules in the bile to keep them from crystallising.

If there is too much cholesterol or bilirubin in the bile, or if the gallbladder doesn't empty properly the systems can fail. This is how gallstones form when a small piece of calcium gets coated with either cholesterol or bilirubin and the bile crystallises and forms a gallstone.

The main purpose of the gallbladder is to store and release bile, or gall. Bile is released into the small intestine in order to help in the digestion of fats by breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones. After the fat is absorbed, the bile is also absorbed and transported back to the liver for reuse.

The pancreas is a major organ functioning as an accessory digestive gland in the digestive system. It is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland. The endocrine part releases glucagon when the blood sugar is low; glucagon allows stored sugar to be broken down into glucose by the liver in order to re-balance the sugar levels. The pancreas produces and releases important digestive enzymes in the pancreatic juice that it delivers to the duodenum.

The pancreas lies below and at the back of the stomach. It connects to the duodenum via the pancreatic duct which it joins near to the bile duct's connection where both the bile and pancreatic juice can act on the chyme that is released from the stomach into the duodenum.

Aqueous pancreatic secretions from pancreatic duct cells contain bicarbonate ions which are alkaline and help with the bile to neutralise the acidic chyme that is churned out by the stomach.

The pancreas is also the main source of enzymes for the digestion of fats and proteins. Some of these are released in response to the production of CKK in the duodenum.

The enzymes that digest polysaccharides, by contrast, are primarily produced by the walls of the intestines. The cells are filled with secretory granules containing the precursor digestive enzymes. The major proteases , the pancreatic enzymes which work on proteins, are trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. Elastase is also produced. Smaller amounts of lipase and amylase are secreted. The pancreas also secretes phospholipase A2 , lysophospholipase , and cholesterol esterase. The precursor zymogens , are inactive variants of the enzymes; which avoids the onset of pancreatitis caused by autodegradation.

Once released in the intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase present in the intestinal mucosa activates trypsinogen by cleaving it to form trypsin; further cleavage results in chymotripsin.

The lower gastrointestinal tract GI , includes the small intestine and all of the large intestine. The lower GI starts at the pyloric sphincter of the stomach and finishes at the anus. The small intestine is subdivided into the duodenum , the jejunum and the ileum. The cecum marks the division between the small and large intestine.

The large intestine includes the rectum and anal canal. Partially digested food starts to arrive in the small intestine as semi-liquid chyme , one hour after it is eaten. After two hours the stomach has emptied. In the small intestine, the pH becomes crucial; it needs to be finely balanced in order to activate digestive enzymes.

The chyme is very acidic, with a low pH, having been released from the stomach and needs to be made much more alkaline. This is achieved in the duodenum by the addition of bile from the gall bladder combined with the bicarbonate secretions from the pancreatic duct and also from secretions of bicarbonate-rich mucus from duodenal glands known as Brunner's glands. The chyme arrives in the intestines having been released from the stomach through the opening of the pyloric sphincter.

The resulting alkaline fluid mix neutralises the gastric acid which would damage the lining of the intestine. The mucus component lubricates the walls of the intestine. When the digested food particles are reduced enough in size and composition, they can be absorbed by the intestinal wall and carried to the bloodstream.

The first receptacle for this chyme is the duodenal bulb. From here it passes into the first of the three sections of the small intestine, the duodenum. The next section is the jejunum and the third is the ileum. The duodenum is the first and shortest section of the small intestine. It is a hollow, jointed C-shaped tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. It starts at the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum. The attachment of the suspensory muscle to the diaphragm is thought to help the passage of food by making a wider angle at its attachment.

Most food digestion takes place in the small intestine. Segmentation contractions act to mix and move the chyme more slowly in the small intestine allowing more time for absorption and these continue in the large intestine. In the duodenum, pancreatic lipase is secreted together with a co-enzyme , colipase to further digest the fat content of the chyme.

From this breakdown, smaller particles of emulsified fats called chylomicrons are produced. There are also digestive cells called enterocytes lining the intestines the majority being in the small intestine. They are unusual cells in that they have villi on their surface which in turn have innumerable microvilli on their surface. All these villi make for a greater surface area, not only for the absorption of chyme but also for its further digestion by large numbers of digestive enzymes present on the microvilli.

The chylomicrons are small enough to pass through the enterocyte villi and into their lymph capillaries called lacteals. A milky fluid called chyle , consisting mainly of the emulsified fats of the chylomicrons, results from the absorbed mix with the lymph in the lacteals.

The suspensory muscle marks the end of the duodenum and the division between the upper gastrointestinal tract and the lower GI tract. The digestive tract continues as the jejunum which continues as the ileum. The jejunum, the midsection of the small intestine contains circular folds , flaps of doubled mucosal membrane which partially encircle and sometimes completely encircle the lumen of the intestine.

These folds together with villi serve to increase the surface area of the jejunum enabling an increased absorption of digested sugars, amino acids and fatty acids into the bloodstream. The circular folds also slow the passage of food giving more time for nutrients to be absorbed. The last part of the small intestine is the ileum. This also contains villi and vitamin B12 ; bile acids and any residue nutrients are absorbed here. When the chyme is exhausted of its nutrients the remaining waste material changes into the semi-solids called feces, which pass to the large intestine, where bacteria in the gut flora further break down residual proteins and starches.

The cecum is a pouch marking the division between the small intestine and the large intestine. At this junction there is a sphincter or valve, the ileocecal valve which slows the passage of chyme from the ileum, allowing further digestion.

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