What is a kidney stone?
Typically, the metabolic evaluation of a stone former consists of a simple blood test and two hour urine collections. It does not seem to hurt him while he pees but he is licking himself pretty often. Make sure you soap your hands and forearms well, and rub them together for at least 20 seconds. The ascending limb of the loop of Henle functions to: Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library. A urinary tract infection UTI is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra.
Practice Quiz: Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology
These drugs help to decrease urine calcium excretion. They also help to keep calcium in the bones, reducing the risk for osteoporosis.
The most common side effect of thiazide diuretics is potassium loss, so in many cases your doctor will prescribe a potassium supplement to go along with the thiazide diuretic. The human body carefully regulates its sodium levels. When excess sodium is excreted in the urine, calcium is also excreted proportionally. In other words, the more sodium you consume, the more calcium that will be in your urine. Your goal should be to reduce your sodium intake so that you consume less than 2 grams of sodium per day.
People who form stones sometimes think that because there is too much calcium in their urine, they should restrict their calcium intake. There is no research that supports this practice. Your body needs dietary calcium to support the skeleton. You should be encouraged to consume two servings of dairy between mg and 1, mg per day or other calcium-rich foods to maintain bone stores of calcium. For patients who form calcium oxalate stones, it is doubly important to consume adequate dietary calcium, because under normal circumstances calcium and oxalate bind together in the intestine and are eliminated from the body.
If there is no calcium to join with oxalate, the oxalate will be reabsorbed by your body and passed into the urine where it may increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones. No matter what your diagnosis, you should drink enough water to produce at least 2 liters of urine per day. Citrate is a molecule that binds to calcium in the urine, preventing calcium from binding to oxalate or phosphate and forming a stone. If your potassium level is low or normal, your doctor may prescribe potassium citrate supplement.
If you have high blood potassium levels, your doctor may prescribe a sodium citrate supplement, such as Bicitra or sodium bicarbonate. There is some evidence that citrus juices, such as orange juice or lemonade, may increase urinary citrate levels, so these fluids would be particularly good for patients with hypocitraturia.
If you form calcium oxalate stones, it is important that you limit your intake of dietary oxalates. Many healthy foods contain oxalate, so rather than exclude these foods entirely, we ask that you limit those foods that are particularly high in oxalate. If you do consume foods high in oxalate, be sure to flush out the extra load of oxalate with an added glass or two of water.
Oxalate and calcium bind together in the intestine and leave the body together in the stool. If there is not enough calcium, then the extra oxalate will have nothing in the intestine to bind to, so it will be absorbed into the bloodstream and end up in the urine, where it will form a calcium oxalate stone. Most Americans far exceed the necessary protein intake, which can lead to too much uric acid in the urine.
As a general recommendation, limit your daily protein intake to 12 ounces per day of beef, poultry, fish and pork. Twelve ounces is equivalent in size to about three decks of cards.
If you have tried a low-protein diet and you still have too much uric acid in your urine, your doctor may prescribe the drug allopurinol. This drug acts to reduce the uric acid levels in the urine by blocking the conversion of purines to uric acid. Citrate supplements, such as potassium citrate, will raise the pH of your urine, making stones, such as those composed of uric acid, less likely to form.
If your blood potassium level is high, your doctor may prescribe sodium bicarbonate or Bicitra. A diet high in protein will reduce urinary pH. When a kidney stone causes pain to the extent that the pain cannot be controlled with oral pain medication, the stone should be treated.
Similarly, stones that are associated with severe nausea or vomiting should be treated. Some stones are associated with infection or fever — such situations can be life threatening and demand prompt attention.
Stones that are associated with a solitary kidney, poor overall kidney function or complete blockage of urine flow should also all be treated. Sometimes, when a stone is associated with bothersome symptoms, it may be appropriate to wait and see if the stone will pass on its own.
If the stone is small, this is a very reasonable course of action. However, stones larger in size than 5 mm are unlikely to pass on their own and should be considered for treatment. There are some instances when it is OK to leave a kidney stone untreated. If the stone is small less than 5 mm and not causing any pain, there is a good chance that it will pass on its own after it falls into the ureter.
Such stones may be followed with "watchful waiting. This can be done with periodic X-rays. Some kidney stones may be infected, and in many cases, despite proper antibiotic treatment, the infection cannot be cleared from the stone.
In such cases, the only way to remove the infection completely is to remove the stone. These are extremely large stones that grow to fill the inside of the kidney. There are serious health risks associated with these stones, and left untreated they are associated with an increased risk of kidney failure.
For example, the Federal Aviation Administration will not allow a pilot to fly until all stones have been cleared from his or her kidney. Other occupations also do not allow for the unplanned passage of a kidney stone. The patient who, whether for business or otherwise, travels to locales where medical care is not reliable may wish to consider preventive treatment.
After thorough consideration of all options available to them, many patients elect to remove their stones at a time when it is convenient for them.
Historically, the treatment of kidney stones required major surgery and was associated with long hospitalization and recovery periods. However, in recent years an improved understanding of kidney stone disease, along with advances in surgical technology, has led to the development of minimally invasive and even noninvasive treatments for people with kidney stones.
We offer a complete range of state-of-the-art treatment options, including ESWL , ureteroscopy and PERC, and we will discuss with you the advantages and disadvantages of each therapy as they apply to your situation. Our goal is to provide each patient with a clear understanding of the nature of their stone burden as well as the most appropriate course of treatment.
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Apply for Admission M. Guide to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions from A to Z. That simply makes matters worse and confuses him. That may explain why he seems to be doing it often.
Even a dribble can trigger the licking. So if he is eating and drinking normally and his activity level is good, I would wait for the vet to check him out. About two months ago we did a round of antibiotic 2x a day for 14 days and now we are back to licking ourself after going potty, restlessness, super frequent urination. I noticed in a prior post that you suggested Fish-flex I hate to keep taking her to the vet is this something I can give her OTC if I catch it early enough?
Will the fish flex help? Dogs should have a pH of between 5. This is slightly acidic. When the pH goes above 7. But grain-based, starchy, processed commercial pet food helps turn the urine more alkaline. So you might rethink her food. If you are feeding her just dry food, add some quality canned food to it.
You can buy Fish-Flex over the counter where fish are sold, but if this is a recurring problem, you may want to consider her diet. Longterm antibiotic usage could lead to an antibiotic resistance.
It also depletes all bacteria in the gut — good and bad. You can buy pH test strips and test her urine at different times of the day to see what her pH is and go from there. She states that the combination of the amino acid and cranberry extract have served as an effective antibiotic alternative.
Her dosing suggestion for methionine is milligrams twice daily for small and medium dogs and milligrams twice daily for larger dogs.
Cranberry extract can be given to small dogs at a dose of milligrams, medium dogs at milligrams, large dogs at milligrams and giant breeds at milligrams, three times daily. Hi, My puppy has been peeing a lot lately.
She will pee a large amount and then later only a few drops come out. She does this several times. Should I give her some cranberry or orange juice? Thank you for the help. Is she straining to pee the few drops?
Does she lick herself only after peeing just a few drops. This could indicate some discomfort. Have you seen any blood in any of her pee? Drinking a lot will contribute to peeing a lot, but if the few drops behavior continues, you should have your vet check her out. It could be that you can just provide them with a urine sample to test. If you try the cranberry juice, you may put it in a separate bowl away from her usual water bowl.
Hi, my female dog and I have been up since 4: She is needing to go out very frequently and is only peeing a little at a time. What can I do to help relive her in the mean time? Pet smart opens at 9: She is also in pain so she needs something for that as well! She is about 65 pounds! Antibiotics like Cephalexin are the most common treatment for UTIs due to their ability to destroy and inhibit the growth of bacteria.
You can buy it over-the-counter where fish products are sold. Check to see if they sell Buffered Aspirin at PetsMart. That may help with her pain temporarily until you can get something better from your vet. UTIs are very painful. You have helped me in the past with my dogs urinary tract problem. She has now been diagnosed with hip dysplasia and she is not even 2 yet.
She is getting a shot to help the cartilidge but we can still see she hurts at times. If there is a holistic vet in your area, check with them as there are alternatives to synthetic meds. Some synthetics may not be suitable for longterm use. There is more info on natural remedies at this link.
Remember that it will take longer to see results from natural remedies, so give them a couple months. In healthy pets, the urine pH is typically in the 6. If the pH is acidic pH below 6 or alkaline pH above 7 , it may allow bacteria to thrive and crystals or stones to form.
You will need to test a couple times a day. The dosage depends on the product that you use. All created for dogs and cats. So the best suggestion I have is to follow the dosage on the label for the product you decide on. Can I give her my antibiotics for previous kidney issues but in much smaller dosages?
My 4 month old staffy pup has a uti he is Peeing a? He was sort o crying a couple of times when Peeing, but both always. I will buy him cranberry pills tomorrow. What dosage is he mènt to get of the trimithapin? Please help I love my wee Bailey baby so much. Is he drinking more water than normal?
I ask because you said he is peeing a lot. Is he actually peeing a lot or attempting to pee often? The reason I ask is because I wonder: They will generally include a pain reliever, too. If you have ever had a bladder infection, you know they are painful. That is probably why he is crying — from pain.
In this case, I would recommend that you have your vet check him out. I had a hard time finding the tablet but he weighs 20pds so how or what do i do to give him the capsule? Will it hurt to give him the whole capsule like once a day or what? There should be a dosage chart on the bottle that will help you determine how much for 20 lbs. It can be toxic if given in too high a dose.
I suggest you use it for days in a row when it seems like an infection is brewing, but I would not use it long term. It can cause a reduction in potassium levels if used long term. My 11 Yorkie age 8 has a uti each year.
This year Im stressed financially and I bought Nux Vomica 30c pills. The directions online vary. Also heard of Arnica Montana, but how much when.. She wont d3rink cranberry juice. My understanding is that Nux Vomica works for removing toxins in her system. Their dosage recommendation is: Give one dose every 30 minutes or more frequently if symptoms are severe. Reduce dosage to one time a day.
Stop when you see improvement and do not repeat again until symptoms recur. Arnica is usually used for dogs with muscle aches, strains and other associated injuries. It has also been used on dogs with emotional stress and can even aid in the rehabilitation process after dogs have experienced brain or spinal cord injuries. Arnica is not intended for prolonged use as it can, over-time cause adverse side effects.
It can also irritate the digestive system. Not a good candidate for a uti. The two brands you suggested make a canned version I think they both do. You might get some canned food from them, too, and just put a bit on top of the dry kibble. She licks her butt but does not scoot. She has had her anal glands empty and there was not much in them. I am trying to decide on what food to switch her to, there is first mate or Dr. I saw those on chewy.
Both sound like good choices. Do you feed her just dry food or do you dress it with a bit of canned on top or even moisten her dry food?
Thank you so much for the advice. I am using the purina urinary dry dog food it is what the vet says she needs I had her on just a grain free before the bladder infections got bad and he frowned on it.
I will google and see what food I can find. I will continue the yogurt and methigel…thank you. The vet has her on fish oil pills as well. I have bought so many things to try and help her, she constantly licks her bottom which tell me she is having a flare up.
Thank you again for the advice! Does she also scoot her butt or just lick? Scooting can indicate an issue with anal sacs — which is generally related to diet. She started with urinary tract infections at 14 weeks old. She has had 4 since. The vet put her on purina urinary tract dog food, and multiple rounds of antibiotics and no table food or treats. Every time we go back for check up she still has traits of infection. I give her fish oil, yogurt and cranberry pill every day plus just started giving her methigel and solid gold berry.
Any other advice would be much appreciated. Have you tried using test strips to determine the pH level of her urine? The pH level indicates the acidity of the urine. If the pH is acidic pH below 6 or alkaline pH above 7 it may allow bacteria to thrive and crystals or stones to form. Throughout the day there are normal pH variations in the urine, especially associated with eating certain foods and medications.
So, one single slightly higher or lower urine pH reading is not alarming if the rest of the tests are within the normal range. With this knowledge, you can adjust her diet and supplements. Though cranberry can discourage bacteria from sticking to the walls of the bladder, it can also affect pH much as food does. Perhaps try the yogurt and methigel alone for a few weeks and see what effect that has on her pH.
Then you can slowly add back in some of the supplements if need be. At least with the test strips, you can see what your changes are doing.
You might also check into a grain-free urinary dog food. One of the Purina urinary foods uses corn as its first ingredient. I have really enjoyed reading all of the post and replies ,seams they were all helpful in some way or another.
I think that would best be left for a vet to diagnose. They can run tests to determine the difference. Is he drinking lots of water also? Can you see the pee? Does it look just clear or yellowish? Has he been out in the heat? Maybe you can take him out more often — every couple hours, then start doing this a little less often.
Maybe he has forgotten his training. I am alarmed by your comments about grapefruit and its toxicity to dogs. Are you referring to Grapefruit Seed Extract as well? There are many websites that indicate GSE is beneficial and safe for use in dogs. I have used it on my dogs and now I am concerned. There are likely many people who feed their dogs grapefruit without incident, and maybe in the processing of Grapefruit Seed Extract, the toxic compound psoralen has been modified.
You will know if grapefruit is a problem for your dogs if you notice the signs of toxicity: There are other options like blueberries.
I have a 11 year old Maltese mix, diagnosed with crystals or stones in his bladder is there anything I can buy to dissolve those crystals that are in his bladder or does he have to go through the surgery in order for them to be removed. Im giving him cranberry juice but also a little acv to help him urinate. It would depend on why the vet is recommending the surgery. Depending on the patient and the location and size of the stone, there are some other less invasive procedures that might be appropriate.
These include a technique called laser lithotripsy that breaks down stones into smaller pieces that can then be voided out, and a procedure called voiding urohydropropulsion, which is a technique that involves manually expressing stones out through the urethra while the patient is sedated.
If he has struvite crystals then you may be able to control it with food. You can also add supplements like Berry Balance to help or cranberry pills. Many dog owners control struvite crystals with either a raw diet, or a kibble diet. Struvites form in alkaline urine, so to prevent them you need to keep the pH of the urine more on the acidic side.
You should choose a high quality kibble accordingly. Or even better, a high quality canned food. A pH of 7 is neutral. Everything above 7 is alkaline, and everything below 7 is acidic. Often people buy pH strips so they can test the urine and make sure it is staying on the acidic side.
Also, lots of fluids is important daily to keep the system flushed and moving. But check your water, too. Does it have too many minerals? Some people also use a solution of water and apple cider vinegar to cleanse the pee area on the pup as often crystals often come with infections, like UTIs and bladder infections.
I have a pitbul and she has a kidney infection with some blood in her urine and i would like to know how much cranberry juice or dried cranberries or cranberry sauce to give her she is 4 years old and weighs 75 pounds and how much apple cider vingar to give her and how often on all thank you. Because she has blood present in her urine, you need to be watchful. If she is going a little, then stopping, then starting again, this is a sign that she is in pain.
She stops because it hurts. This would warrant a trip to the vet, too. You can give her apple cider vinegar by mixing it with water. For a lb dog, mix 1 tablespoon in her water bowl. Because cranberries are a bit tart, an easier way to go is to use cranberry extract capsules. Hi, I noticed two days ago now that my 1 and a half year old male pitbull is having trouble urinating. He takes forvever to urinate and very little comes out at a time.
He squats down low and looks uncomfortable doing so. My dog is potty trained but has urinated in the house multiple times inside the house for the last two days. He still has a good appetite and still drinks plenty of water.
I did however, mix some cranberry juice no sugar added to his wet food and he did eat it. But drank it while mixed in with his food. How long does it take to see some improvement with his maybe UTI after drinking the cranberry juice? As a result, they will pee multiple times and only a little at a time.
In this case, cranberry will not help. Cranberry creates an environment that makes it more difficult for bacteria to thrive. However, your boy may have crystals and cranberry will not help. So you should have your vet check him out. This may be cheaper as a vet tech may be able to perform the test.
Collect a urine sample in the morning in a clean container and take it in to your vet for evaluation. The sooner you get it to the vet, the better. Morning samples are best as they are the most concentrated and reflect what is going on with the bladder.
Your vet can prescribe the appropriate antibiotic. And they may recommend a change in his diet. It can also be painful. AZO is not recommended for dogs. You could try a cranberry extract chewable for dogs usually at petsmart or pet stores. Encourage her to drink more to flush her bladder. You can do this by adding water to her food or purchasing her food in canned formula to increase flushing of the bladder. But this should not be done for long term. Can cranberry capsules be given to 12 week old puppies?
I adopted a Boxmas and she was urinating all over the place yesterday and had blood in her urine today. I took her to the vet and he prescribed antibiotics. Is it okay to give a puppy cranberry capsule? You can but because of her small size, dosing can be difficult so you risk altering the pH of her urine to be too acidic. This can create new problems.
What dosage of cranberry capsule for my 13kg dog prone to cystitis. Would u recommend wiping her with baby wipes after urinating? You can buy testing strips that you touch to her urine stream to monitor. You can certainly try them. You might also add some moist food to her diet as the increased moisture should make her urinate a bit more and flush out her kidneys more often so bacteria will not have time to form and grow.
Generally, the vet will prescribe an amoxicillin-based antibiotic like clavamox. You can purchase amoxicillin from a pet store where fish products are served. It is labelled for fish tank usage and is called Fish-Mox, but it is the same amoxicillin that the doctor prescribes. Animals that are allergic to penicillin should not, under any circumstance, take Amoxicillin. Where it says citrus juices can be used is a little unclear. So everyone knows, My 11 yr.
Apple Cider Vinegar in her water bowl, and she drank it with no hesitation. Blood stopped next morning. I am going to let vet help her in 3 days, pay day. I would say the antibiotic would completely stop it, I am just temporarily helping it.
Last UTI was last year, she squats during urination where she touches ground, so I started wiping her hiney with baby wipe after she urinates. Just hoping maybe that will in courage her to help me keep it clean and debris free! Your posts have been VERY beneficial to me and my pack!!!! Coconut oil to detangle the matted hair? I think your best bet is to trim it away using blunt nosed scissors and cutting from the body outward to the end of the mat.
My dogs like coconut oil, so they would lick it. This could just make a tangled mat worse, I think. She certainly sounds like quite a tom boy! Hi Isaac, Last week i have seen few small blood drops on the floor, didnt think much about it as my husband is a handyman lol: Im concerned, cause i know its not normal, but we just had vet regular check up last month and everything was fine. We did not do the blood test this time. I dont know if it can be related but he has had 2 hot spots before our vet check.
Has been trated with antibiotics and his dermatitis has resolved. Any idea where the blood is coming from exactly? Do you suspect a urinary tract infection? Or could it be from another part of his body? Urinary tract infections are often related to diet. The pH level of their urine becomes too alkaline and allows infection to take hold. They sell pH strips for this. Most healthy dogs have a neutral to slightly acid urinary pH between 6 and 7.
You want to keep him in the right range. Our 6 year old sigh tzu has been diagnosed with struvite stones. She always has water available to her and she drinks a lot. Her infections go away with treatment but then will come back. I teach high school and am constantly busy with our 2sons…not a lot of free time in another words. Any suggestions for long term? By monitoring it, you can see when he might be developing a problem and do some dietary changes.
Also, given how small your dog is, you might consider home-cooking her meals. Here is a sample meal:. This diet provides approx. You can also substitute 2 to 3 cups of potato, cooked with skin, or 2 cups of cooked macaroni for the rice. You can get these from your veterinarian. Be sure she is allowed to go at least every 6 to 8 hours. This was the last of what I can safely afford…. Its been 4 days since the last visit, and his urination stream is very very weak, followed by a few drops of thick blood..
Any advice is appreciated. There are two types of urinary crystals: In simplest terms, both are generally related to diet, so if you can get the diet right, you can reduce the problem. There is some great info available on this page. Cranberry is acidic and is believed to prevent bacteria from adhering to the walls of the bladder. The unflavored solutions of Pedialyte have an average pH of 4. Raw ACV is the only vinegar that is alkaline-forming to the body.
All other vinegars white, balsamic, red wine, etc are acid-forming. Your vet might prescribe some meds to alleviate this that you can administer as needed. Perhaps he is drinking less because of the liquid you are adding to his food which I think is a great idea. Changing his diet to change his chemistry takes a bit of time. My 6 month old puppy keeps getting uti with ecoli present. Should I treat her with vinegar or give her the amoxicillin I have for myself in hand?
You can give her some amoxicillin, but ultimately you want to find the source of the ecoli else the problem will come back. Is it related to her food? The concern with the juice is the sugar content.
Sugar can feed the problem. If you want to use juice, try to get the one with the least sugar in it. Of course, once you do that, it becomes pretty bitter so you will have to add it to their water or food gradually. Sometimes capsules are easier because of this. We took our lab to the vet yesterday and she did exray also wants a urine sample but today there is no blood just clear pee.
So wondering if we could use cranberry juice and if so how much and how often. Cranberry contains a property that seems to prevent bacteria from adhering to the walls of the bladder.