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Biological anthropology
Few gas filled loops beyond duodenum indicates jejunal atresia. Intense in and out. When our mitochondria use fat as an energetic source, its toxic load is decreased, the expression of energy producing genes are increased, its energetic output is increased, and the load of inflammatory energetic-end-products is decreased. The alveolar cell type, named for a superficial similarity to the pulmonary alveoli, is the most common form found on the muscle masses of the trunk and extremities, and is seen more frequently in older children and young adults. They have had us programmed and brainwashed into believing many falsehoods so that we can be left to our own accords to demonstrate our heartlessness to each other. You want TRUE not fake ketosis. Epub May 9.

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The ketogenic diet KD is traditionally introduced with an initial period of fasting and fluid restriction. Over-hydrate gallons of water a day for days to downregulate aldosterone before beginning. Once you pull back on the water on your dry fast the fat will fall right off you. Glucose production and disposal were decreased during the fasting study and increased during the dehydration study compared with the control study.

These data suggest that fasting and dehydration have differential effects on glycemia during insulin deficiency, with dehydration favoring the development of hyperglycemia and fasting resulting in reduced glucose concentrations. Test it and see for yourself. Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.

It works to raise the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers the glucose. Calorie restriction and its effects on aging: Direct inactivation of mTOR, stimulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase, and the destabilization of individual proteins may impair mTOR signaling under dehydrating conditions. It is found in every living cell of every living mammal and most other animals on Earth.

If you want to avoid the life span-shortening symptoms of aging, you need to maintain optimal AMPK activity. Too little available energy starves the cell, while too much energy can exhaust and disrupt cellular components. In either case too little or too much energy , the cell and the tissues, organs, and systems in which it is a part functions inefficiently. That energy inefficiency ultimately leads to the dysfunctions we identify as the diseases or symptoms of aging.

Every cell in your body depends absolutely on a steady supply of energy in the form of chemical bonds. When you eat and absorb nutrients, energy from chemical bonds in food is released and passed down a complex series of enzymes until it is stored again in a molecule called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. All of these factors underlie the lethal diseases of aging. An emerging target for modification of injury-induced pain plasticity. Chronic pain is a critical medical problem afflicting hundreds of millions of people worldwide with costly effects on society and health care systems.

Novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of pain are needed that are directly targeted to the molecular mechanisms that promote and maintain chronic pain states. Recent evidence suggests that peripheral pain plasticity is promoted and potentially maintained via changes in translation control that are mediated by mTORC1 and MAPK pathways. While these pathways can be targeted individually, stimulating the AMPK pathway with direct or indirect activators achieves inhibition of these pathways via engagement of a single kinase.

Here we review the form, function and pharmacology of AMPK with special attention to its emerging role as a potential target for pain therapeutics.

We present the existing evidence supporting a role of AMPK activation in alleviating symptoms of peripheral nerve injury- and incision-induced pain plasticity and the blockade of the development of chronic pain following surgery.

We argue that these preclinical findings support a strong rationale for clinical trials of currently available AMPK activators and further development of novel pharmacological strategies for more potent and efficacious manipulation of AMPK in the clinical setting.

Finally, we posit that AMPK represents a unique opportunity for drug development in the kinase area for pain because it is pharmacologically manipulated via activation rather than inhibition potentially offering a wider therapeutic window with interesting additional pharmacological opportunities. Altogether, the physiology, pharmacology and therapeutic opportunities surrounding AMPK make it an attractive target for novel intervention for chronic pain and its prevention.

Diabetic therapies that induce the stress response, whether via heat, bioactive compounds, or genetic manipulation, improve or prevent all of the morbidities and comorbidities associated with the disease.

The agents reduce insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokines, visceral adiposity, and body weight while increasing mitochondrial activity, normalizing membrane structure and lipid composition, and preserving organ function.

Therapies restoring the stress response can re-tip the balance from disease into health and address the multifaceted defects associated with the disease. One striking observation is how a brief heat shock—as short as 15 min and as infrequent as once a week—results in remarkable improvements in the metabolic state.

A variety of techniques have been used to induce hyperthermia—hot water immersion, warm electric blanket, sauna, and infrared box. Mild, direct electrical current stimulation has also been used to augment heat-induced rises in HSPs. Relevantly, whole-body hyperthermia raises baseline iHSPs Shinohara et al. Along with the ubiquitin proteasome system, autophagy is one of the main methods that cells use to clear dysfunctional or misfolded proteins.

Autophagy can clear any kind of trash: The overall rate at which damage accumulates is influenced by conserved metabolic factors longevity pathways and regulatory proteins that control lifespan through adjusting mechanisms for maintenance and repair. Autophagy, the major catabolic process of eukaryotic cells that degrades and recycles damaged macromolecules and organelles, is implicated in aging and in the incidence of diverse age-related pathologies.

Recent evidence has revealed that autophagic activity is required for lifespan extension in various long-lived mutant organisms, and that numerous autophagy-related genes or proteins are directly regulated by longevity pathways. These findings support the emerging view that autophagy is a central regulatory mechanism for aging in diverse eukaryotic species.

In summary, the present study is to our knowledge the first to provide evidence that exercise-induced autophagy relies on the activation of the AMPK pathway in human skeletal muscle. In addition, our findings indicate that the most effective strategy to activate autophagy depends on exercise intensity rather than dietary supply, thus providing interesting clues to improve the understanding of remodeling in both healthy and pathologic human skeletal muscle.

Our combined training enhanced the expression of both Akt and mTOR protein, as well as the areas of type I and type II fibers, whereas strength training only led to elevated protein content of mTOR and increased size of type II fibers. In addition, correlations between changes in the levels of Akt and mTOR protein and changes in type I area and the mean fiber area indicate that these proteins play an important role in hypertrophy. Aging controlled by mTOR.

Here we have highlighted important studies that support a role for both mTOR dependent protein synthesis and autophagy in ageing. Genetic approaches show a clear overlap between signaling networks that control ageing and autophagy. An increase in autophagy controlled by mTOR extends life span via dietary restriction and insulin signaling. One or the other. The smaller the window the better. Legs one day; upper body next. Too much exercise is not good and prematurely wears the body out. Intense in and out.

The more stressed you are the more acidic you are and the more cortisol death hormone and toxic hydrogen peroxide is being released leading to more and more and more problems.

You want to bring down the stress, cortisol and hydrogen peroxide levels while simultaneously raising ph. MATCHA tsp daily lowers cortisol, activates ampk and autophagy, inhibits mtor, energy, appetite suppression. Zero cream sweeteners, fats or calories these all halt the positive effects of the fast, create insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Aspirin or willow before bed ampk activator, lowers morning cortisol.

The fat around your organs goes first and the fat around your belly last. Stay the course; slow and steady wins the race!!!! Or keep it simple and get Interstellar Spice and Peel. Diabetes is a byproduct of free radical damage. Flavonoids are the most powerful free radical scavengers on the planet. No wonder diabetes and insulin resistance is rampant! Our findings confirm a fundamental role of RLIP76 in regulating the function of obesity-promoting pro-inflammatory cytokines, and provide a novel mechanism for targeted therapy of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Thus, in the absence of RLIP76, increases in these lipid-peroxidation products are insufficient by themselves to turn on any signaling pathway that can increase BG or lipids. Resveratrol, commonly used anti-oxidant, is known to activate AMPK which could contribute to its protective effects from high fat diet induced insulin-resistance [53] , [54]. HMG-CoA limits the rate of cholesterol synthesis in liver tissue. Loss of RLIP76 significantly affects the activation of stress and apoptosis pathway proteins [1] , [25] , [35].

These medications generally function to increase the effectiveness of insulin-mediated postprandial inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. RLIP76 knock-out mice survive well and are active. In our extensive and previously published studies, RLIP76 inhibition specifically leads to targeting signaling of importance in diabetes mellitus and other oxidative stress related conditions like cancers where targeting RLIP76 leads to selective cancer cell death without affecting the survival of normal cells and tissues [1] , [31] — [33].

Hence, both global and selectively targeted approaches can be reasonably pursued as required while targeting RLIP In conclusion, our results suggest that RLIP76 is a key effector controlled by multiple proteins known to regulate the metabolic abnormalities of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and that in its absence drugs that target these proteins will fail to function.

A novel strategy for targeting breast cancer. Intake of citrus fruits is known to reduce the risk for incidence of breast cancer. Western blot and histopathological analyses of resected tumors showed a decline in the levels of survival and proliferation markers Ki67, pAkt, survivin, and cell cycle proteins CDK4 and cyclin B1. Collectively, the ability of 2HF to decrease RLIP76, VEGF and regulate critical proliferative, apoptotic and differentiation proteins together provides strong rationale to further develop 2HF based interventions for targeting breast cancer.

Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit peel, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator.

Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver.

While it is generally accepted that the primary cause of obesity is energy imbalance, i. Hence, molecular processes and pathways more proximal to the origins of obesity—those that directly regulate energy metabolism or caloric intake—appear to be more feasible targets for therapy.

In particular, nitric oxide NO is emerging as a central regulator of energy metabolism and body composition. NO bioavailability is decreased in animal models of diet-induced obesity and in obese and insulin resistant patients, and increasing NO output has remarkable effects on obesity and insulin resistance.

This review discusses the role of NO in regulating adiposity and insulin sensitivity and places its modes of action into context with the known causes and consequences of metabolic disease. Catalase neutralizes the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. You WANT a lean agile muscular physique like Bruce Lee —NOT the freak of nature, totally unhealthy hulk a n a b o l i c s t e r o i d artificially induced body building fake muscle mass.

Abnormal, artificial muscle and mass comes at the expense of longevity by hyperactivating mTOR. All time stupid idea. Do you know any hulk sized super centenarians? Green and black teas have been extracted by serial chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, and divided into four subfractions designated as GT for green tea and BT for black tea, respectively. The total extracts from green and black teas exhibited a potent scavenging capacity of exogenous H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner.

It appeared that the total extracts from black tea scavenged H2O2 more potently than those from green tea. When tested individually, the potency of scavenging H2O2 by green tea subfractions was: In addition, we demonstrated that total fractions of green and black teas substantially inhibited the induction of 8-OHdG in calf thymus by all three portions of UV spectrum UVA, B and C. Consistent with the capacity of scavenging H2O2, the subfractions from black tea showed a greater inhibition of UV-induced 8-OHdG than those from green tea.

At low concentrations, the order of potency of quenching of 8-OHdG by green tea subfractions was: Addition of - -epigallocatechin gallate EGCG , an ingredient of green tea extract, to low concentration of green and black tea extracts substantially enhanced the scavenging of H2O2 and quenching of 8-OHdG, suggesting the important role of EGCG in the antioxidant activities of tea extracts.

These results suggest that aging-associated reductions in AMPK activity may be an important contributing factor in the reduced mitochondrial function and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism associated with aging. Specific signaling through AMPK and p38 MAPK to PGC-1 may therefore explain in part the metabolic remodeling in- duced by intense interval exercise training, including mitochondrial biogenesis and an increased capacity for glucose and fatty acid oxidation.

Background— Intermittent fasting IF , a dietary regimen in which food is available only every other day, increases the life span and reduces the incidence of age-associated diseases in rodents. We have reported neuroprotective effects of IF against ischemic injury of the brain. In this study, we examined the effects of IF on ischemic injury of the heart in rats.

Methods and Results— After 3 months of IF or regular every-day feeding control diets started in 2-month-old rats, myocardial infarction MI was induced by coronary artery ligation. Twenty-four hours after MI, its size in the IF group was 2-fold smaller, the number of apoptotic myocytes in the area at risk was 4-fold less, and the inflammatory response was significantly reduced compared with the control diet group. Serial echocardiography revealed that during 10 weeks after MI with continuation of the IF regimen , the left ventricular LV remodeling and MI expansion that were observed in the control diet group were absent in the IF group.

In a subgroup of animals with similar MI size at 1 week after MI, further observation revealed less remodeling, better LV function, and no MI expansion in the IF group compared with the control group. Conclusions— IF protects the heart from ischemic injury and attenuates post-MI cardiac remodeling, likely via antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory mechanisms. Nitric oxide repairs the damaged mitochondria which excretes toxic hydrogen peroxide in your body which grays your hair and rapidly ages you.

Drink your arugula and beet juice daily and before and after dry fasts! Beets and arugula are the highest natural sources of nitrates that convert through bacteria in saliva to nitic oxide. It has been recently found that mitochondrial biogenesis and function are enhanced by nitric oxide NO , which is a key signaling molecule in vascular homeostasis. To understand dry fasting deliberate dehydration and starvation is to understand hormesis. Even water and oxygen in excess can be deadly; as can their absence.

What we are doing is deliberately stressing the body— to make it more resilient. Too much dry fasting can kill just as over eating or over drinking can kill. Wake me up when we got a real crisis on our hands. All about hormesis here: SIRT1 stands for sirtuin silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 S. SIRT1 is an enzyme that deacetylates proteins that contribute to cellular regulation reaction to stressors, longevity. A major cause of aging is thought to result from the cumulative effects of cell loss over time.

In yeast, caloric restriction CR delays aging by activating the Sir2 deacetylase. Here we show that expression of mammalian Sir2 SIRT1 is induced in CR rats as well as in human cells that are treated with serum from these animals. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 attenuated this response. SIRT1 deacetylates the DNA repair factor Ku70, causing it to sequester the proapoptotic factor Bax away from mitochondria, thereby inhibiting stress-induced apoptotic cell death.

Thus, CR could extend life-span by inducing SIRT1 expression and promoting the long-term survival of irreplaceable cells. Immune system defects are at the center of aging and a range of diseases. Here, we show that prolonged fasting reduces circulating IGF-1 levels and PKA activity in various cell populations, leading to signal transduction changes in long-term hematopoietic stem cells LT-HSCs and niche cells that promote stress resistance, self-renewal, and lineage-balanced regeneration.

Multiple cycles of fasting abated the immunosuppression and mortality caused by chemotherapy and reversed age-dependent myeloid-bias in mice, in agreement with preliminary data on the protection of lymphocytes from chemotoxicity in fasting patients.

These findings link the reduced levels of IGF-1 caused by fasting to PKA signaling and establish their crucial role in regulating hematopoietic stem cell protection, self-renewal, and regeneration. However, thermogenic gene expression remained impaired even when the receptor was bypassed with a cell-permeable cAMP analog, revealing the existence of a second inhibitory mechanism.

Ramadan fasting has not only been spiritually beneficial but it has physical, psychological, social and health benefits.

Ramadan is a month of self regulation, process of self purification, truthfulness and self trainings with the hope that this training will last beyond the end of Ramadan. One advantage of fasting is that the poor are given attention and benefits from charity and the faithful practice of the concept of neighbourhood and hospitality. The physiological effect of fasting includes lowering of blood sugar, lowering of cholesterol and lowering of the systolic blood pressure.

In fact, Ramadan fasting would be an ideal recommendation for treatment of mild to moderate, stable, non-insulin diabetes, obesity and essential hypertension. Fasting is powerful therapeutic processes that can help people recover from mild to severe health conditions. Our body has a self healing power, in order to activate this power, the stomach must be kept empty, if Ramadan fasting is done properly it can help to recover from most diseases. P53, also known as TP53 or tumor protein EC: It is very important for cells in multicellular organisms to suppress cancer.

Ghrelin the anti-aging hunger hormone is released about 12 hours after your last meal. This is why you want lots of Ghrelin: But what about lack of water and kidneys?

Klotho, a protein counteracting aging, is a powerful inhibitor of 1,dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25 OH 2D3] formation and regulator of mineral metabolism. The present study reveals a novel effect of bicarbonate, i. An acidogenic Western diet results in mild metabolic acidosis in association with a state of cortisol excess, altered divalent ion metabolism, and increased bone resorptive indices. Acidosis-induced increases in cortisol secretion and plasma concentration may play a role in mild acidosis-induced alterations in bone metabolism and possibly in osteoporosis associated with an acidogenic Western diet.

Our results decipher the mechanism by which catechins such as EGCG, or green tea in general, have been successfully consumed for thousand of years for general health benefits. These polyphenolic compounds may serve as model structures for the development of novel agents to treat the metabolic syndrome and related diseases. Acid administration causes an increase in the liver glycogen concentration and in the daily excretion of nitrogen and sulfur in the urine, while the alkalosis leads to a decrease from normal in all of these values.

It is concluded from this that the antiketogenic effect of acidosis depends upon an increase in protein catabolism and an increase in glucose formation therefrom, while alkalosis is ketogenic because it has an opposite effect upon this process. We want MORE ketosis fat burning not less! Once your ph drops you are eating muscle. These data provide a potential therapeutic strategy against cardiomyocyte injury triggered by pH fluctuations.

It usually takes place around the 18 hour mark and goes away after a few hours. This is the brain switching off glucose and now using ketones for fuel. The headache could also be symptomatic of caffeine withdrawal.

Totally normal; push through, it passes. For example, fasting protects mice against high dose chemotherapy in part by reducing serum IGF-I signalling but does not protect cancer cells, since oncogene mutations prevent the activation of the stress resistance pathways in response to the reduction in glucose, IGF-I and other growth factors caused by nutrient deprivation Over 24 weeks, a low-carbohydrate diet program led to greater weight loss, reduction in serum triglyceride level, and increase in HDL cholesterol level compared with a low-fat diet.

ADHD Adiponectin is associated with longevity and heightened insulin sensitivity and has anti cancer properties; it is a hormone excreted primarily from adipose tissue fat. Fasting is exceptional for releasing Adiponectin and preventing adhd not to mention inhibiting disease and prolonging life. Centenarians and high Adiponectin levels https: FGF21 the starvation hormone Fibroblast growth factor FGF21 is a hormone secreted by the liver during fasting that elicits diverse aspects of the adaptive starvation response.

Among its effects, FGF21 induces hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, increases insulin sensitivity, blocks somatic growth and causes bone loss. These findings raise the possibility that FGF21 can be used to extend lifespan in other species.

While FGF21 is expressed in numerous tissues, including liver, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and pancreas, circulating levels of FGF21 are derived specifically from the liver in mice. The sacred role of glucose as source of energy now is broken into small pieces. Therefore human body build up its biomass arising from glucose, thereby carbohydrates or meals are just a source of carbon chains of different lengths, branching; combinations with other elements and so forth.

We could say that glucose C6 H12O6 is the perfect building block. Our body is able to synthesize even nucleic acids with it. But our body fulfills its energy needs by means of the unexpected and astonishing capacity of melanin to split and re-form the water molecule. For constipation or bowel issues: You can also skip this altogether and drink this at feeding window and dry fast or fluid restrict ie.

Explore both options to find best fit. You want a plan that you can stick to and that provides results. Some of these effects became more intense in cytokine-induced cells.

Most of the above processes are more pronounced in cytokine-induced cells. He Shou Wu Polygonum multiflorum. Both Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside have contrast molecular mechanisms on cancer and normal physiological functions. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well.

Further molecular mechanism is revealed by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy dSTORM —a novel high-precision localization microscopy which enables effective resolution down to the order of 10 nm. It shows the expression and spatial arrangement of mTOR and its downstream effectors, demonstrating that this ginsenoside exerts its excellent anticancer effects via down-regulation of mTOR signaling pathway in Hep-2 cells.

Taken together, our findings elucidate that the antitumor effect of PPD is associated with its regulation of mTOR expression and distribution, which encourages further studies of PPD as a promising therapeutic agent against laryngeal carcinoma. Total extracts or saponins from this plant have been shown to exert a wide range of beneficial effects such as reducing cholesterol and blood glucose levels, strengthening immunity, and inhibiting cancer growth [ ].

These activities likely overlap with diverse downstream effects on AMPK activation [ 9 ]. In vitro studies revealed that damulin A and B, two dammarane-type saponins purified from the leaves of G. We recently reported that, the ability of a G.

In both cultured HepG2 and L6 myotube cells, this heat-processed G. Although the antiobesity activities of G. Therefore, we performed the first clinical trial for evaluating the antiobesity effects of actiponin on human subjects. The objective of the present study was to document the effect of week actiponin supplementation on body fat composition particularly abdominal fat in obese Korean participants using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol.

In the blood analysis, GBGFF decreased main plasma parameter such as HbA1c, triglyceride, and total-cholesterol levels related to diabetes and improved the expression of genes and protein related to glucose homeostasis and glucose uptake in the liver and muscle. The histological analysis result shows that GBGFF decreased lipid accumulation in the liver and damage in the muscle.

Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.

The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type PPT in modified regular ginseng extract MRGX. In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A human lung cancer cells.

To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of MRGX, we performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in the A cells. Molecular mechanisms that were associated with the anticancer activity of MRGX were studied, with a special focus on the autophagy-related multiple signaling pathways in lung cancer cells.

Microarray analyses elucidated autophagy-related genes affected by MRGX. Ginseng is widely used as a medicinal herb and has demonstrated effects against liver diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the hypolipidemic effects of the high hydrostatic pressure extract of Korean fresh ginseng HEG on hepatic lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. The intracellular triglyceride and cholesterol contents were determined using enzymatic colorimetric methods.

HEG significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Consequently, HEG may be beneficial as a functional food ingredient to improve various hepatic diseases by reducing hepatic lipid accumulation. RM also suppressed expression of enzymes and proteins responsible for lipid synthesis, transport and storage: Recent studies have shown that ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides GLP are characterized by immune regulation and anti-tumor functions.

However, little research has been conducted to evaluate their effects on cerebral ischemia. In the current study, we first showed that GLP treatment improved neurological deficits, cerebral infarct volume, and brain edema rate, indicating the protective role of GLP in middle cerebral artery occlusion MCAO in rats. Furthermore, GLP treatment can significantly increased the cerebral vascular density in the ischemic area as well as angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia.

Moreover, after cerebral ischemia, Nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone SVZ area were significantly decreased, while the number of Nestin positive cells was significantly increased after administration of GLP. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide LBP is well known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine that, has beneficial effects.

Evolution in the above links is based on current scientific evidence. Beagle as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the organic beings inhabiting South America, and in the geographical relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent. See 72, image results for dinosaurs.

Zoom Dinosaurs - EnchantedLearning. Try this search facility - just click on the first letter of what you need information on. Periodic Chart of the Elements with correlation to their health aspects - http: Taxonomy Detailed information and examples and links to database searches are found on our Microscopy Page Paragraph 3. All life forms are composed of basic chemical elements. Atomic elements prefer to exist as molecules. Earth life thrives on water. Life is built up from some very common materials.

There is one substance though that is more complicated and vital to life. A Dutch biochemist, named Mulder, first used the word "protein" in He got the word form a Greek word meaning "holding first place.

Although proteins are complicated they consist the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Some parts of the human body contain more than other parts but it exists is some amount in all parts of the body and it is vital for life to exist.

There is no living organism that does not contain protein. Viruses for example contain a complicated type of protein called nucleoprotein.

When proteins are exposed to an acid the protein breaks apart into smaller molecules. These smaller molecules are called amino-acids. Millions of different proteins can be formed from the combinations of different amino-acid molecules. Some common proteins are: Difference Patterson Tutorial; PR Enzymes control body chemistry. The enzymes of the human body work by means of surface catalysis http: That is the surface of the enzyme enables other molecules to react in a manner they would not without the surface of the enzyme present.

The enzyme being the catalyst is not changed in any manner from the action of the protein. The human body contains only a small quantity of enzymes but even this small quantity is sufficient. They are important to many functions including food digestion.

For an explanation of what an enzyme is click here http: Some, however such as egg cells of birds, can be seen with the naked eye. Others, like nerve cells, may be very small in some of their dimensions, but extremely long; a single human nerve cell may be as much as 3 or 4 feet long, and an elephant's nerve cell may be even longer. To say that cells are generally small is not saying much, however, because even among microscopic cells there is a wide range in size.

Biologists took it for granted that cells are bounded by a membrane - the plasma membrane, as it is often called. Cell image from http: The cell membrane is not simply an envelope giving mechanical strength and shape and some protection to the cell, though these functions are important. It regulates the traffic in materials between the precisely ordered interior of the cell and essentially unfavorable and potentially disruptive outer environment.

Usually portions of the cell flow around the material, enclosing it within a chamber. When the engulfed material is liquid or consists of very small particles, the process is often termed pinocytosis. Cell Biology Links - Click on the links below for detailed information. Everything you need to know about Protonema. Moss gametophytes and sporophytes Moss capsule Moss antheridia Moss archegonia Marchantia thallus Marchantia archegonia Marchantia antheridia.

Ligustrum Leaf Cross Section. Evergreen ligustrum often called privet shrubs and trees thrive throughout the state of Florida. They are widely used as landscape shrubs, hedges, and specimen trees.

Many species and cultivars are available with a diversity of leaf colors, leaf forms, and growth habits. All selections are tolerant of heavy pruning, which makes them suited for clipped hedges. Because of a rapid growth rate, many require pruning to maintain them within bounds. The white flowers are attractive during late spring and early summer. However, the pungent odor may be objectionable. The nucleus plays the central role in cellular reproduction, the process whereby a single cell undergoes cell division and forms two new cells.

The nucleus directs the metabolic activities of the living cell and guides the life of the cell as long as it lives. They are composed of nucleic acid and protein. The chromosomes bear, apparently in linear arrangement, the basic units of heredity, called genes. They are the code units of the transmission of bits of information from parent to offspring, and for the determination of the enzymes that so precisely regulate the myriad interdependent chemical reactions of life.

Genes and Chromosomes - Biology: DNA in a Nutshell! DNA - From the Beginning. Primer on Molecular Genetics from the U. Up to 3 fragments may be cloned at a time can you replicate that in the lab? Each fragment may be inverted relative to its original orientation. Genetic elements contained in the cloned fragments are transferred to the cloned DNA. We found an excellent Genetics tutorial: You will have to register to view it but it is free.

A virus can multiply only inside a host cell, whose genetic mechanisms it subverts for its own reproduction. Both the structure of the virus and its mode of replication differ widely between viruses. The usual outcome of a viral infection is the lysis destruction of the infected cell, with the release of viral particles.

Some viruses, however, can instead become integrated into the host chromosome, where their genes are replicated along with those of the host cell. Because viruses sometimes carry host DNA sequences from one species to another, they make possible an occasional mixing of different gene pools during their evolution. Virulent viruses usually kill the cells they infect. Other viruses, although also often able to kill cells, frequently have a more subtle effect.

These viruses are called temperate. Virus infected bacteria which appear un-infected but have the hereditary ability to produce phage, are called lysogenic. Upon infection, genes promoting both lytic growth and lysogenic integration are expressed. Which pathway succeeds is determined by the competing action of these early gene products and by the influence of host factors. The lambda phage is a well studied temperate phage which can grow in synchrony with its host E. The lytic cycle is that part of the life cycle of a temperate phage in which it multiplies rapidly, destroying its host and releasing many copies into the medium.

The pathway genes in the lambda immunity region are: The lambda system provides one of the best studied examples of a genetic switch. Two back-to-back promoters in the region of cI and cro control the genetic switch.

When cI is present it activates its own synthesis and blocks transcription of cro. When cI is inactivated, transcription of cro can occur, resulting in the lytic cycle. The cI protein combines with the operator, Or. Polymerase are enzymes producing a polynucleotide sequence, complementary to a pre-existing template polynucleotide. Polymerization is the combination of several molecules to form a more complex molecule, usually by addition or a condensation process. It is sometimes a reversible process.

Biology I Reference Sites. Gram Negative Stain - Red or pinkish. Why does it stain this way? The color differences are sometimes subtle so learn to recognize the differences! When, as the result of my first communications on the fermentations in , it appeared that the ferments, properly so-called, are living beings, that the germs of microscopic organisms abound in the surface of all objects, in th air and in water; that the theory of spontaneous generation is chimerical; Book Directory Computational Molecular Biology: An Integration of Chemistry Click on the names in the List below for detailed information.

It is known for its nitrogen fixing abilities, and they form symbiotic relationships with certain plants, such as the mosquito fern. They are one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins , which are harmful to local wildlife, as well as farm animals and pets. Joint-Legs Phylum Arthropoda M Those That Sting - Visit the Oregon Coast Aquarium's virtual jellyfish exhibit to learn about the jellyfish's biology, life cycle, relatives and even see live pictures on the JellyCam.

Also has two classroom activities, one K-4 and the other Introduction to the Ctenophora - Information on ctenophores "comb jellies" with links to cnidarian and jellyfish information.

Invasion of the jellyfish. Sea Stars - Information on its description, habitat, diet, breeding, etc. Confocal Image Gallery - Marchantia Sporophyte. Deuterostomia - Lophotrochozoans vs. Metabolic Pathways Wall Chart. You can access the individual images by clicking in a reduced image of an entire section of the wall chart use the linkS below. Stem Cells; Scientific Progress and A Global Resource Scientific American: Science and the Citizen: If you enjoy caring for people and are intrigued by a job where you will constantly learn and interact with people, than learn more about online medical assisting degrees.

As a medical assistant, you will work closely with a physician and perform clinical tasks as well as work on administrative tasks. Human Anatomy Online - InnerBody. What is zoology anyway? The study of animals. The branch of biology that studies and classifies animals and animal life.

It is a branch of biology that is concerned with the scientific study of animals, including their biology, distribution, and identification and including the study of animals - mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, spiders, and mollusks including mussels. The science and history of the animal kingdom, including its king, the House Fly Musca maledicta.

The father of Zoology was Aristotle, as is universally conceded, but the name of its mother has not come down to us. Two of the science's most illustrious expounders were Buffon and Oliver Goldsmith, from both of whom we learn L'Histoire generale des animaux and A History of Animated Nature that the domestic cow sheds its horn every two years. OK, OK enough of the definitions - now tell me some zoology details. I want details please.

Animals - Animal Kingdom Sites. University of Michigan - Zoology BiologyBrowser. General animal kingdom sites: Since the [natural] history of man interests us most directly and should stand as the basis of comparison to which we submit the accounts of all other animals, we shall treat it in greater detail.

Amphibians Loads of information on amphibians. Includes a tutorial on amphibian embryonic development, amphibian pictures and more. Birds Information on bird identification, bird songs, pictures, clipart and more. Bird Behavior Information on speech, mating habits, migration and other behavioral characteristics exhibited by birds.

Animals Discover some interesting facts about animals. Mammals Learn about the characteristics that differentiate mammals from other vertebrates. Primates Information and resources pertaining to primates. Includes images of different primate species. Reptiles Learn about turtles, lizards, snakes and other reptiles.

Includes wonderful images of various reptiles. Marine Biology Get information on how to become a marine biologist or search a database that contains over 2, marine species. Botany Encyclopedia of Plants and Botanical Dictionary. Botany Biosciences Botanical Society of America: A non-profit membership Society Be sure to click on the subjects in the left column to explore this great site.

Flower Anatomy Printout - EnchantedLearning. Biology Page 2 Plants. Science Calculators and Conversion Factors. Molecular Biology Software - Reviews and Download links. Nuclear Terminology The Language of the Nucleus, on-line edition.

The world's largest nuclear glossary. Includes country studies and North America gazetteer.

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