Ecological resilience

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Natural landscape
The higher the score a country has, the better the assessment has it received regarding the six governance elements. To be counted as currently Baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the last five years or been reassessed within that timeframe. Mental states are functional states consisting of causal relations among components for processing information. Examples of cultural intrusions into a landscape are: Help us improve this article! In the event of unanticipated shocks; this dependency reduces the ability of the system to adapt to these changes.

Nonvascular plants

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Most gymnosperms are evergreen, but some, such as larch and bald cypress , are deciduous the leaves fall after one growing season. The leaves of many gymnosperms have a thick cuticle and stomata below the leaf surface.

The tree or shrub is the sporophyte generation. In conifers, the male and female sporangia are produced on separate structures called cones or strobili. Individual trees are typically monoecious male and female cones are borne on the same tree. A cone is a modified shoot with a single axis, on which is borne a spirally arranged series of pollen- or ovule-bearing scales or bracts.

The male cone, or microstrobilus , is usually smaller than the female cone megastrobilus and is essentially an aggregation of many small structures microsporophylls that encase the pollen in microsporangia.

The extant cycads division Cycadophyta are a group of ancient seed plants that are survivors of a complex that has existed since the Mesozoic Era They are presently distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres.

Cycads are palmlike in general appearance, with an unbranched columnar trunk and a crown of large pinnately compound divided leaves. The sexes are always separate, resulting in male and female plants i. Most species produce conspicuous cones strobili on both male and female plants, and the seeds are very large.

The ginkgophytes division Ginkgophyta , although abundant, diverse, and widely distributed in the past, are represented now by a sole surviving species, Ginkgo biloba maidenhair tree. The species was formerly restricted to southeastern China, but it is now likely extinct in the wild.

The plant is commonly cultivated worldwide, however, and is particularly resistant to disease and air pollution. The ginkgo is multibranched, with stems that are differentiated into long shoots and dwarf spur shoots. A cluster of fan-shaped deciduous leaves with open dichotomous venation occurs at the end of each lateral spur shoot. Sexes are separate, and distinct cones are not produced. Female trees produce plumlike seeds with a fleshy outer layer and are noted for their foul smell when mature.

The gnetophytes division Gnetophyta comprise a group of three unusual genera. Ephedra occurs as a shrub in dry regions in tropical and temperate North and South America and in Asia, from the Mediterranean Sea to China.

Species of Gnetum occur as woody shrubs, vines, or broad-leaved trees and grow in moist tropical forests of South America, Africa, and Asia. Welwitschia , restricted to extreme deserts less than 25 mm [1 inch] of rain per year in a narrow belt about 1, km miles long in southwestern Africa, is an unusual plant composed of an enormous underground stem and a pair of long strap-shaped leaves that lie along the ground.

The three genera differ from all other gymnosperms in possessing vessel elements as compared with tracheids in the xylem and in specializations in reproductive morphology. The gnetophytes have figured prominently in the theories about gymnospermous origins of the angiosperms. Approximately million years ago, flowering plants angiosperms evolved from gymnosperms, although the identity of the specific gymnospermous ancestral group remains unresolved.

The primary distinction between gymnosperms and angiosperms is that angiosperms reproduce by means of flowers. Flowers are modified shoots bearing a series of leaflike modified appendages and containing ovules immature seeds surrounded and protected by the female reproductive structure, the carpel or pistil. Along with other features, angiospermy, the enclosed condition of the seed, gave the flowering plants a competitive advantage and enabled them to come to dominate the extant flora.

Flowering plants have also fully exploited the use of insects and other animals as agents of pollination the transfer of pollen from male to female floral structures. In addition, the water-conducting cells and food-conducting tissue are more complex and efficient in flowering plants than in other land plants. Finally, flowering plants possess a specialized type of nutritive tissue in the seed, endosperm.

Endosperm is the chief storage tissue in the seeds of grasses; hence, it is the primary source of nutrition in corn maize , rice , wheat , and other cereals that have been utilized as major food sources by humans and other animals. Many of the flowering plants are commonly represented by two basic groups, the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons , distinguished by the number of embryonic seed leaves cotyledons , number of flower parts, arrangement of vascular tissue in the stem, leaf venation, and manner of leaf attachment to the stem.

However, one of the major changes in the understanding of the evolution of the angiosperms was the realization that the basic distinction among flowering plants is not between monocotyledon groups monocots and dicotyledon groups dicots.

This group of typical dicots is now known as the eudicots, and molecular-based evidence supports their having a single evolutionary lineage monophyletic. Other angiosperm groups, such as the Magnoliids , do not fit the traditional paradigm of monocot and dicot and are considered to have more-ancient lineages. The plant body of angiosperms consists of a central axis of two parts, the shoot and the root.

Shoots have two kinds of organs, the stem and the leaves , while roots have one type of organ, the root itself. Systems of classification are often based upon the longevity of the portions of plant aboveground. Woody plants are trees and shrubs whose shoots are durable and survive over a period of years.

They are further classified into deciduous and evergreen plants. Deciduous plants drop their leaves at the end of every growing season , whereas evergreens keep their leaves for up to several years. Herbaceous plants have soft, flexible aerial portions and commonly die back each year.

Another system of classification, based on the duration of the life history, is particularly applicable to angiosperms of the temperate region. Annuals are plants that complete the entire life history germinate from seeds, mature, flower, and produce seed in one growing season. Examples of annuals are corn , wheat , and peas.

Biennials complete their life history in two seasons, blooming during the second season. Beets , celery , cabbage , carrots , and turnips are biennials, but their flowers are rarely seen because they are harvested during the first season. Annuals and biennials are both generally herbaceous plants. Perennials are plants that live from year to year. Trees and shrubs are perennials , but some herbaceous plants are also perennials. A number of modifications of the stem occur in angiosperms, and many of these modifications provide a means for herbs to become dormant and survive for a period of years.

Rhizomes are horizontally growing underground stems that serve as organs of asexual reproduction and food storage. Similar to rhizomes, tubers are thickened underground stem portions that primarily serve as food storage for example, potato. Corms are short upright underground stems surrounded by a few thin scale leaves as in Crocus and Gladiolus. Bulbs have a greatly reduced stem with thick fleshy scale leaves surrounding it as in the onion. Runners and stolons are surface stems characteristic of such plants as strawberries ; new plants may form on the runner or stolon as it spreads along the ground.

Many of the most prolific weeds have runners or stolons by which they propagate asexually. In herbaceous dicotyledonous stems, the vascular conducting tissue xylem and phloem is organized into discrete strands or vascular bundles , each containing both xylem and phloem.

The cells between the vascular bundles are thin-walled and often store starch. The peripheral region of cells in the stem is called the cortex ; cells of the central portion make up the pith. The outermost cells of the stem compose the epidermis. No bark is formed on the herbaceous stem. In contrast, woody dicot stems develop an outer layer of dead thick-walled cells called cork cells, which together with the underlying phloem compose the bark of the tree.

The water-conducting cells that make up the xylem are nonliving. The accumulated xylem often forms annual rings composed of two zones: Such rings may be absent in tropical trees that grow all year round. Xylem rays, radiating like spokes of a wagon wheel, are formed in the xylem and connect with the peripheral phloem. Stems of monocotyledons are composed of numerous vascular bundles that are arranged in a seemingly scattered manner within the ground tissue.

Monocot vascular bundles lack a vascular cambium, and monocot stems thus do not become woody in a manner similar to dicots. Leaves are the other plant organ that, along with stems, constitutes the shoot of the vascular plant body. Their principal function is to act as the primary site of photosynthesis in the plant. Leaves of dicots possess a network of interconnecting veins and minor veins between the larger veins of the leaf a pattern called net venation.

Leaves of monocots possess major veins that extend parallel to the long axis of the leaf parallel venation. Leaves are classified on the basis of leaf arrangement and whether they are simple or compound. A leaf may be deeply lobed but still simple; a compound leaf is composed of two or more distinctly separate leaflets. Structurally, leaves are composed of an outermost layer of cells called the epidermis.

Epidermal cells secrete a waxy substance cutin that forms a cuticle impermeable to water. The pores stomata in the epidermis that allow for gas exchange are formed between specialized epidermal cells called guard cells. Vascular bundles veins are embedded in the mesophyll , the tissue that includes all of the cells between the upper and lower epidermis.

The cells of the mesophyll contain the photosynthetic pigments. The root system begins its development from the embryonic root radicle , which grows out of the seed after the seed has absorbed water. This is the primary root of a new plant. The tip of the root is covered by a mass of loose cells called the root cap. Just beneath the root cap is the region of cell division of the root.

Epidermal outgrowths just above the root tip are root hairs that are active in water and mineral absorption. Two types of root systems are commonly distinguished, fibrous roots and taproots.

Fibrous root systems are composed of large numbers of roots nearly equal in size; root systems of this type are found, for example, in the grasses. A taproot system is one in which the primary root remains the largest, and a number of smaller secondary roots are formed from it; taproots are found in such plants as carrots and dandelions. Roots that arise other than by branching from the primary roots are called adventitious roots.

The prop roots of corn, for example, are adventitious. As noted above, a primary distinction between the gymnosperms and the angiosperms is that the latter have flowers. Flowers represent modified shoots that have become differentiated for reproduction. The flower bears whorls of floral organs attached to a receptacle, the expanded end of a flower stalk on which the flower parts are borne. Sepals collectively called the calyx are modified leaves that encase the developing flower.

They are sterile floral parts and may be either green or leaflike or composed of petal-like tissue. Petals collectively called the corolla are also sterile floral parts that usually function as visually conspicuous elements serving to attract specific pollinators to the flower.

The calyx and the corolla together are referred to as the perianth. Flowers that lack one or both of the above perianth parts are called incomplete. Stamens collectively called the androecium are the male parts of the flower.

Stamens are composed of saclike anthers microsporangia and filaments, which are stalks that support the anthers. Anthers are usually compartmentalized and contain the pollen grains microgametophytes. The pistil , or female part of the flower, is composed of one or a number of carpels collectively called the gynoecium that fuse to form an essentially enclosed chamber. The three regions of the pistil from the base up are the ovary , which contains the ovules; the style , a stalked structure atop the ovary that elevates the stigma ; and the stigma, a sticky knob whose surface receives the pollen during pollination.

Flowers may contain both male and female parts a condition called perfect or parts related to just one sex imperfect , or they may have no sexual parts sterile. Female and male flowers may be located on separate plants dioecious or on the same plant monoecious.

Flowers can also be borne singly or in aggregations called inflorescences. Primitive flowers are radially symmetrical actinomorphic and are characterized by numerous spirally arranged floral parts. Floral parts are free unfused and are borne on an elongated floral axis. Sepals, petals, and stamens are attached below the ovary. Advanced flowers are bilaterally symmetrical and are characterized by a reduction in the number of floral parts.

Floral parts are fused often forming a long floral tube. Sepals, petals, and stamens are attached to the floral tube above the ovary. Pollination is the transfer of pollen to the stigma of the same or another flower. Agents of pollination encompass a vast and diverse array of animals, including insects , birds , bats , honey possums, and slugs.

Flowers exhibit various adaptations to pollinators, such as showy corollas, the production of nectar a sugary liquid , and even visual cues visible only to insects that can perceive ultraviolet wavelengths of light. Flowers pollinated by wind generally are small and lack petals. The stigma is the pollen receptor site and must be chemically compatible with any pollen that lands on it for the pollen grain to germinate.

This ensures that only genetically compatible sperm are transferred to the egg. In flowering plants, ovules are enclosed and protected in an ovary. As the ovule develops into a seed, the ovary matures into a fruit. The formation of fruits is a characteristic feature of the flowering plants.

Fruits are extremely variable. In the absence of a biological mechanism for offspring to inherit knowledge directly, a predisposition for unquestioning belief in authority might help spare each generation from having to rediscover or verify everything. Rejecting objectivity and the distinction between the experiencer and the experienced, mysticism thus mistakes feeling for knowing. Mystics are forever free to claim that anyone who doesn't feel what they feel is somehow "doing it wrong".

The conclusions of mysticism are usually unfalsifiable or inconsequential and thus propositionally meaningless. Some mystics compare meditation to advanced mathematics and claim that both yield conclusions that can only be verified by adept practitioners. This claim is misleading. It is true that creating and even comprehending advanced mathematical conclusions usually requires specialized training. But all mathematical demonstration is by definition subject to verification through mechanical symbol manipulation.

This symbol manipulation is not necessarily private or "interior" like the experience of a mystic, but is expressly public and exterior.

Humans' propensity for mysticism derives perhaps from their nature as intelligent social animals who survive by detecting patterns and especially intentions in an environment dominated by their social interactions.

Humans appear biased to see intentionality not only in friends, foes, predators, and prey, but also in weather, the heavens, or the universe itself. This bias is perhaps related to the general human tendency known in psychology as the Fundamental Attribution Error to incorrectly emphasize intentional explanations over situational or circumstantial ones. A common misconception is that science might be an alternative to religion for answering questions about meaning and value.

Those questions are the domain of philosophy, whereas science deals with objective phenomena. Science depends on the epistemological principle of skepticism , and any "conflict" between science and religion is really a conflict between skepticism and faith or mysticism. Religion can be made superficially compatible with science by restricting itself to questions that are a scientific but unanswered or b philosophical.

However, faith- or mysticism-based religion can never be compatible with the skepticism on which science -- and all epistemologically valid philosophy -- is built. Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra cc BCE and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation. Christianity is the West Eurasian monotheistic fideist religion professing that Jesus of Nazareth c6 BCE - c30 AD is the descendent of Abraham and the Son of God whose sacrifice for humanity's sins was recorded in the New Testament c , and who fulfilled the prophecies of the divinely inspired Old Testament.

Islam is the Middle Eastern monotheistic fideist religion professing surrender to the will of Allah God , whose revelations in the Old and New Testaments were superseded by the Koran revealed to Muhammad c - for his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Ishmael c BCE. Sikhism is the Punjab monotheistic fideist religion founded by Guru Nanak and whose sacred Adi Granth overlays a spartan righteousness onto Hindu cyclical cosmology.

These religions place unwarranted faith in purported revelations for which there is no credible evidence of authenticity or validity. Taoism is the Chinese polytheistic mystical religion based on the Tao-Te-Ching ascribed to Lao Tzu c BCE and which advocates a path tao of minimalist serenity and reverence for various deities.

Shintoism is the Japanese polytheistic mystical religion involving mainly the observance of customs and festivals honoring various deities. Jainism is the Indian pantheist mystical religion founded by Mahavira BCE and which blends monastic asceticism with Buddhist cyclical cosmology. Buddhism is the East Asian nontheistic mystical religion founded in India c BCE by the Buddha, who taught that existence is cyclical suffering caused by desiring and can be overcome by the " eightfold path " of right thought and deed.

Confucianism is the Chinese nontheistic mystical religion based on the sayings of Confucius c BCE recorded in the Analects , and which teaches social order, scholarship, filial reverence for family and ancestors, and divination. These religions posit entities such as gods or spirits or forces to explain subjective mystical experiences which have simpler naturalistic explanations. These religions allege phenomena such as rebirth and divination for which there is no credible evidence.

Of the belief systems in the world that currently have mass followings, Buddhism and Confucianism are the least misguided. For this reason, thet are attractive to Westerners who recognize the bankruptcy of revelation-based religion but who are still looking for an off-the-rack worldview rather than learning enough philosophy to assemble one themselves. Jesus of Nazareth was a faith healer and self-proclaimed divinely-special savior who tried to reform his native Jewish religion.

However, the evidence about Jesus is less likely to have resulted from divinity than from misinterpretation, exaggeration, rationalization, delusion, deception, and mythologizing. Indeed, perhaps the greatest weakness of the claims for Jesus' divinity is the gospels' reliance on and vouching for the Old Testament, a patchwork of folklore, legends and myths about a tribe whose patriarch Abraham turned to monotheism because of fertility problems.

Jesus was a Jewish prophet who affirmed Jewish law [ Mt 5: Jesus no doubt echoed the Torah theme that "all nations" would witness the majesty of Israel's God, but his only command to actually convert and baptize "all nations" is in a post-Easter speech alleged only in one gospel [Mt In the gospels Jesus heals the sick possession, blindness, skin disorder, bleeding, fever, paralysis, withered hand , revives the recently deceased, calms a storm, multiplies food, and walks on water.

The miracles ascribed to Jesus seem not to have been very convincing [ Mt Any cases of blindness, paralysis, or demonic possession cured by Jesus could have been psychogenic. Jesus apparently admits [ Lk The one case of congenital blindness is recorded as disputed, and only in the latest gospel [Jn 9]. The Christian doctrine of the "trinity", attempting to reconcile Jewish monotheism with Jesus' self-revelation, holds that Jesus 1 is both fully human and fully divine, and 2 is God in a different "person".

The former is a contradiction, and the latter has no scriptural basis. In the gospels Jesus never claims identity with God or even explicit divinity, but rather a divinely special status as "the Son of God" and the "Anointed One" Hebrew: Jesus repeatedly distinguishes himself from God: The title of 'God' is never reliably applied to Jesus anywhere in the New Testament. In many translations of 2 Pet 1: The gospel authors never explicitly claim Jesus to be God, and the closest they come is the vague language of Jn 1: John quotes Thomas exclaiming [Jn 20] "my Lord and my God", but immediately states [ The "mystery" of Jesus' nature was hardly clarified by the Apostles [e.

Christian scribes tried to change that; cf. Even the alleged angelic annunciation of Jesus to his parents ommitted [Lk 1: Thus, just as Jesus failed to leave clear teachings about salvation, hell, divorce, circumcision, and diet, he also did not effect a competent revelation of who precisely he was. The doublethink of the "trinity" is not found in the Bible, but instead was invented to reconcile Jewish monotheism with Jesus' idiosyncratic Sonship claims.

Jesus seems to have been illegitmate, and to have been known to be such in his community [Mt 1: His only recorded words before his ministry concern his disobedience [Lk 2: He spurned his stepfather's trade of carpentry to take up a ministry proclaiming himself the son not of Joseph but of God. Despite angelic revelations [Lk 1: Only on the day of his death do the gospels record a single friendly word [Jn Jesus began his apparently one-year ministry as a follower of John the Baptist whose embarrassing baptism of Jesus is played down or not mentioned in the later gospels.

By contrast, in the later Luke and John, Jesus asserts he is Christ, and confidently assures a co-crucified convict of their impending ascension. Jesus "could not do many miracles" in his hometown [Mk 6: Jesus' movement seems not to have been joined in his lifetime by a single family member or prior acquaintance, but only by strangers. Jesus satisifed the diagnostic criteria of paranoid schizophrenia: At his death the apostles abandoned Jesus in panic, even though they should have been expecting his resurrection if they had indeed witnessed his miracles, heard his divinity claims, and heard him say at least four times [Mk 8: The New Testament accounts of the resurrection appearances develop over time from silent to vague to contradictory to fantastic.

The Empty Tomb story could have resulted from a discreet reburial or removal -- perhaps by a disciple, as in a rumor reported in Mt She was the first to visit the tomb on Easter [Mt She weepingly lingered [Jn The appearances were suspiciously exclusive: Many of the "appearances" seem to have been unimpressive to the disciples who heard about them and should have been expecting them and even to those who witnessed them: When some [Mk 6: There is no record that anyone ever considered checking the Baptist's body the grave of which was known to his disciples [Mk 6: The 1st-century Jewish historian Josephus is hard to count as anti-Christian, even after discounting his affirmation unnoticed by all of his earliest Christian commentators of the resurrection as an interpolation.

Josephus may have written that Jesus "performed surprising works" and even that Jesus was believed to have been resurrected, but the possibly interpolated mention is only in passing. Josephus devotes more space each to John the Baptist and James, and while reporting much minutiae over the entire period during which Jesus lived, does not mention: The gospel story o f a secretive unpublished family-resenting bastard faith healer in the rural outback of a peripheral province of a regional empire seems an u nlikely self-revelation for the omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent Creator of the universe: In the gospels Jesus heals the sick, revives the recently deceased, calms a storm, walks on water, and multiplies food.

The god of the Torah makes appearances, speeches, promises, and predictions; raises the dead; and takes credit for various plagues, fires, floods, astronomical events, victories, healings, and deaths. It is implausible that the Creator's works would be so confined to ancient times and so apparently constrained by ancient imaginations. After creating billions of galaxies in Genesis, the god of the Torah is implausibly obsessed with the family of Abraham and the Jordan valley where they live.

It seems implausible that an omnibenevolent, omniscient, infallible deity would entrust a few fallible men in a backward corner of the world with such paltry evidence and then demand that everyone else either hear and believe them or suffer eternal damnation. In the gospels Jesus damns entire towns [Mt The god of the Torah tests and torments his followers, commits mass murders of e. Noah's flood victims [Gen 6: It is implausible that the Creator of the universe would be so petty and wicked.

The god of the Torah promotes or demands extravagant worship, dietary taboos, animal sacrifice, repressive sexual codes, human mutilation, monarchy, subjugation of women, slavery, human sacrifice [Lev In the gospels Jesus affirms the Torah [Mt 5: It is implausible that a competent and benevolent deity would in his revelation allow the endorsement of such heinous crimes and evil policies. If the existing evidence about Jesus of Nazareth is considered a convincing proof of his divinity, then many other things can be proven with similar evidence.

Descartes argued "I think, therefore I am". However, "I" could be illusory, and the fact of my thinking only warrants the certainty that something exists: Positivism is a stricter form of Empiricism that asserts the Verifiability Principle.

Free will is either of the doctrines that human choices are a determined internally rather than externally volitional free will or b not pre-determined at all indeterminate free will. Determinism is incompatible with indeterminate free will, but is compatible with volitional free will if agents have internal state that influences and thus helps determines their actions. Volitional free will is also compatible with forms of indeterminism in which the acausality is not so rampant as to undermine agent self-influence.

Indeterminate free will requires indeterminism, but degenerates into uncaused chance if acausality confounds not only prediction of effect but also attribution of cause. Since most effects seem caused rather than uncaused, and since the complexity of minds makes them hard to predict, minds appear to have at least weak free will.

Weak free will is sufficient for assigning ethical responsibility to decision-making systems even in the face of complete determinism. Do minds have strong free will, or can their decisions in principle be inferred from sufficient knowledge of prior circumstances? Anti-materialists posit an immaterial soul or will that is free from both deterministic causality and random acausality.

This notion violates the law of the excluded middle. Either the immaterial will is subject to perhaps probabilistic but nonetheless causal causes, or it is not. The same is true of material minds. The actions of an immaterial will could be said to be caused by its own internal causal processes, but the same can be said of material minds. Subjective experience consists of complex associations among perceptions, and necessarily occurs in systems having such associations.

If a subjective experience is not "like" anything i. Physicalism is the thesis that all facts can be described in physical and thus non-subjective terms. Some humans have what they call a "natural belief that collections of cells do not generate minds" [McGinn ] and that therefore physicalism must be false.

Such a belief seems only as "natural" as the belief that collections of atoms do not generate life, and just as unjustified. The operation of e. Qualia are ineffable intrinsic subjective qualities of perception, such as the redness of red, beyond the functional or dispositional properties of perception.

Qualia are taken by opponents of physicalism to be a mysterious phenomenon that physicalism cannot explain. However, qualia do not exist, because the functional and dispositional properties of perception can , in fact, explain the subjective qualities of perception.

The functional role of certain sorts of perceptions in a conscious system necessarily and understandably entails that the system will report qualia. Thus there are no ineffable intrinsic subjective qualities of perception beyond its functional qualities. The Knowledge Argument is an argument made by Frank Jackson in purporting to show that physicalism is false because knowledge of all the relevant physical facts does not include, for certain experiences such as the redness of red, knowledge of what it is like to have them before they are had.

Jackson hypothesizes in the distant future a brilliant neuroscientist Mary spending her whole life in a colorless room learning all the physical facts about seeing the color red. Jackson claims that only when Mary sees something red can she learns the new fact of what redness is like, and that therefore physicalism is false. Jackson's argument fails because it ignores the difference between memorizing an algorithm and executing it. The experience of the redness of red consists in the operation of a complex set of functional components for processing information.

While we can conceive of Mary having serial access to arbitrarily many memorized facts about such components, we cannot conceive of her having a large enough working memory or a fast enough mind to "manually" perform the operations "in her head" in order to recreate the experience of redness. Similarly, Mary could memorize the sequence of pixels in a monochrome bitmap and yet still not be able to mentally visualize what the bitmap will look like -- even if it is an image of a favorite drawing which she had already memorized in arbitrary detail.

The conceivability or logical possibility of zombies is taken by opponents of physicalism to show that physicalism is false.

It seems impossible to conceive of a creature that lacks subjective experience but nevertheless exhibits all the self-reporting behaviors of humans that help us to ascribe subjective experience to them. Therefore, zombies are inconceivable and do not show physicalism to be false. A system has intentionality by virtue of its potential and actual causal relations with the world. The Chinese Room is a thought experiment devised by John Searle in to show that there cannot be intentionality or understanding in a formal symbol manipulation system such as a room in which a speaker of English manually executes an algorithm allowing the room to pass the Turing Test in Chinese.

Searle claims that intentionality "is a biological phenomenon, and it is as likely to be as causally dependent on the specific biochemistry of its origins as lactation [or] photosynthesis". Searle charges that functionalism is a form of dualism because it says mind is in principle independent of the specific biochemistry of the brain. The human in the Chinese Room does not understand Chinese, but the human running the algorithm implements a system that does indeed understand Chinese.

The system has intentionality by virtue of the causal relations that allow it to correctly answer questions posed to it in Chinese. Intentionality is a formal or informational property, whereas lactation and photosynthesis involve chemistry and energy. Simulated thinking can indeed produce understanding, just as simulated musical composition can indeed produce a sonata. If a functional explanation of mind is "dualistic", then so is a functional explanation of long division or carburetion.

Materialism implies that consciousness is distributed over space and time in a material substrate of mind such as the human brain. Thus there is no moment in time or point in space at which a thought enters consciousness. Asking when precisely did a material mind become conscious of an event is like asking when precisely did the British Empire learn of the signing of the treaty that ended the War of The Battle of New Orleans was fought two weeks after the treaty was signed, by soldiers that had not yet heard of the signing.

The Turing Test is an assay for intelligence in which an interrogator using teletyped queries attempts to distinguish between a certified intelligence and a candidate intelligence. A rigorous interrogator can pose lines of questioning that can only be answered by use of the perceptive inductions that are the essence of intelligence. Not every intelligence could pass such a rigorous Turing Test, but everything that passes such a Turing Test is an intelligence.

Roger Penrose argues that the human mind is not computable because, given a formalization of one's mind and the Godel sentence for one's mind, a human mind allegedly could recognize the sentence as true whereas the formalized computation could not.

Penrose errs in assuming one could know a formalization of one's mind and correctly believe in its consistency. Godel's Theorem merely shows that any formalizable reasoning faculty could not correctly believe in its own consistency.

Discovery is the learning of a principle or fact that was already in effect. Invention is the creation of a method or mechanism that was not already in operation. Principles and facts are discovered not invented because they were already in effect. Theories are invented not discovered because the explaining that they constitute was not already happening, even though the principle they describe might have been.

Thus, Darwin can be said both to have invented the theory of evolution and to have discovered the principle of evolution. Critics of skepticism point to the scientific revolutions in the past to question the validity of what science asserts in the present.

They cite Kuhn's theory of paradigms, Einstein's transcendence of Newton, discoveries of unforeseen physical forces and particles , various premature announcements of the end of physics, and various incorrect predictions of technological barriers. First, technology and science are different. Those who incorrectly denied the technological possibility of powered or supersonic flight did not deny the scientific reality of birds or gunshots. Second, science in the past left vast swaths of phenomena unexplained.

The darkness of infinite star-filled space was considered Olber's Paradox until well into the 20th century. The Sun was a marvel of inexplicable energy as recently as Disease and heredity and the blueness of the sky were still unexplained in Electricity and magnetism were spooky curiosities as recently as In there were still big mysteries about purposes and origins, but fewer marvels about what some phenomenon might possibly be. Perhaps humanity's biggest marvel in was quantum action at a distance, followed distantly by minor marvels like dark matter, gamma ray bursters, and high-temperature superconductivity.

Even a phenomenon as marvelous as mind has been demonstrated to be neurological -- although diehard dualists insist that consciousness is a true marvel.

Third, science converges toward truth even across some paradigm shifts. The Earth is still spheroid and still moves around the Sun, even though the Sun is now known to not be the center of the universe. Gravity still obeys Newton's inverse square law, even though relativity now explains gravity as geometry instead of as force.

Momentum is still conserved , even though mass and energy are interconvertible. Since roughly the time of Darwin, there have been very few big questions for which science gave answers that were not even approximately correct. Perhaps the biggest mistakes in this time were the underestimations of the age and size of the universe. Finally, humanity is now clearly converging on answers to the biggest scientific questions. Science has been so spectacularly successful in the last years that people tend to consider it to be a self-contained worldview independent or inclusive of its entire philosophical foundation.

Science as a method would still work quite well if naturalism and materialism were false in the ways proposed by their opponents. The success of science is not a completely dispositive argument against supernaturalism or anti-materialism, though it of course provides much of the raw materials for attempting such an argument. We should resist the urge to say that some philosophical positions are more scientific than others, because philosophy is more fundamental than science and deals with issues that are almost entirely outside science's domain.

An intrinsic value is a value which derives from an intention or appetite that is an end in itself, and is not purely instrumental to other intentions and appetites. An ultimate value is an intrinsic value the pursuit of which is not compromised by the pursuit of any other value.

In the absence of objective purpose or inherently good or bad appetites, humans seem free to choose their own purposes and values. Can there be an objective rational basis for values? It does not seem impossible, but no human choice of values has been shown to be justifiable through objective reason alone. Instead, such choices must ultimately be based at least in part on appeal to appetites rather than to reason.

This resort to arational appeal can be minimized by using it just to choose fundamental values, or better yet the criteria for choosing fundamental values.

Several criteria for choosing fundamental values seem appealing: We value not just information and knowledge. We value understanding and wisdom and especially the intelligence that both produces and includes them. Understanding is knowledge that is fundamental, recursive, and reflexive: Wisdom is the understanding of both one's purpose and how best to pursue it. We value the complexity and organized diversity that lies between rigid order and random chaos.

Systems like life that undergo evolution by natural selection are the best source of such complexity and organized diversity. We value the autonomy that is required by life and intelligence in order for them to flourish. Life needs autonomy to pursue the self-interest necessary for preservation of self and kind. Intelligence needs autonomy to question assumptions and authority. We value justice , which allows each agent to enjoy the reasonably expectable results of its decisions and non-coercive actions.

If the 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics didn't guarantee that entropy effectively always increases, then life would perhaps evolve runaway godlike powers, and those gods might not value extropy so much.

What would an omnipotent omniscience value? A dependent person is a person who has less than the normal amount of intelligence , volition , or physiological independence. Minor children are dependent persons, and their parents are usually their guardians.

The other major group of dependent persons are the mentally disabled. Cetaceans and apes are not intelligent enough to be considered even dependent persons. No amount of mental or physical power makes any entity deserve more rights than persons. Bioengineered and artificial beings are fully persons if they meet the tests of intelligence and volition. A being is also a person if it is of a kind that ordinarily are or become persons and has either significant cognition or both sentience and physiological independence.

Viable human fetuses thus are dependent persons, in the same sense that minor children are. Genotypes of persons are not themselves persons, and have no right not to be modified. A person ceases to be a person when it permanently loses its life, intelligence, or volition. A person must be considered a dependent person if he does not want personal responsibility for any intermittent loss of intelligence or volition.

A person is identified through time with its closest close-enough continuous-enough continuer. A person P1 constituted from the description and even materials of a person P0 is not identified with P0 if the constitution process is discontinuous.

It is logically possible to duplicate a person, even though the duplicate would not share in the identity of the person and would have the ethical status of a child of the original's age. It is also logically possible to split a person such that all continuers are equally close and all are close and continuous enough to preserve identity.

In this case the continuers would share equally the predecessor's identity, and would have to assign among themselves all of the predecessor's unsharable personal and property relations. Similar reasoning applies to joined persons. Impersonal organisms may be owned by persons, and may be coerced or killed by their owning person or if unowned and unaccessed by any person. Genotypes of organisms are not themselves alive, and thus have no independent right against extinction.

Bioengineered and artificial beings have the full rights of organisms if they meet the test of being alive. Property can consist only of possessable resources , artifacts, and intellectual property. An artifact is any material thing created by an intelligence. Intellectual property is property consisting of an original creation of information, including expressions but not facts , inventions but not discoveries , and reputations.

Copyright is the right to reproduce an original expression such as text, images, audio, video, sculpture, or dance. A patent is the property right over an original invention. A reputation is the public or commercial esteem or identity of a person or a person's property. Defamation is damage to a reputation through deceptive expression.

Original expressions are the intellectual property of their creator or his assignee, but should not be granted full copyright. When media reproduction and distribution was expensive and its ownership concentrated, copyright had the primary effect of ensuring commercial exclusivity rather than preventing non-competing or "fair" use. Digital technologies have made media reproduction and distribution asymptotically free, and so archaic copyright doctrine finds itself opposed to uses which cannot be prevented.

Although not protected by copyright, there seems to be no shortage of expressions such as fashions, jokes, and bumper stickers. Ownership of expression should give only the right to prevent its reproduction in cases of a competition that diverts commercial benefit from the owner to the competitor, b attributed use with unattributed defamatory modification, and c unattributed use of any kind. Intellectual property in reputations should be recognized for as long as the commercial utility of those reputations.

Anti-competition rights in expressions should be recognized for only as long as it might have taken before someone else created the same original expression. For most expressions, this duration would be indefinite. Intellectual property in an invention should be recognized for only as long as it might have taken before someone else invented it, or for as long as the ordinary product lifecycle in the relevant industry, whichever is longer. Cooperation is the interaction among persons for mutual benefit.

Cooperation is usually positive-sum even for direct and reversible exchanges, because the exchanging persons have differing needs or values. Cooperation can take many forms. Marriage is a form of contract that unites many of the property rights and liabilities of the marrying persons. Aggression is the violation by a person of another person's rights , and consists only of: Deception is the statement of demonstrable falsehoods or the omission of relevant truths that has the intentional effect of encouraging a false belief in another person.

Theft is the unjust and non-consensual taking of property from its rightful owner. Anti-competitive monopoly is the intentional control or denial of a person 's participation in an industry by the coordinated action of the person s controlling that industry. Torture is the infliction of pain on any being as a result of the sadistic intention or callous negligence of a person.

Competition is the contrary efforts of persons to win the consent of some other person s to associate in some way.

The infliction of opportunity costs through non-monopolistic competition does not by itself constitute aggression. Expression is only aggression if it involves deception that intentionally or negligently causes actual harm or serious risk thereof, for example by yelling "fire! Non-deceptive incitement to aggression is not itself aggression. Injustice is unminimized, unreversed, or unpunished aggression. The minimization of coercion can itself justify a minimal amount of coercion.

Coercion should be reversed by payment of damages or, if possible, reparation of the original property or access rights to the coerced persons. Serious coercion should be punished by loss of freedom, personal interaction, and even life. Thus justice can also be defined as the most liberty for the most persons. Freedom is significant volition: The freedoms of two persons can be in complete conflict, but their liberties by definition cannot.

The state should allow the incorporation of fictitious persons for commercial purposes, with limited liability and equal ownership and control for each shareholder, as long as at least one shareholder agrees to unlimited liability. Thus corporations should be an elaborate form of limited partnership, where at least one full partner retains full personal liability for the corporation's debts.

Artificial monopoly should only be regulated to the extent it is anti-competitive. An important example of anti-competitive monopoly is when all the firms in an industry or region refuse to do commerce with employees or customers of a certain race. Since the market cannot efficiently regulate natural monopolies, the state should do so. The Eightfold Path is a prescription by Buddha of a middle path said to lie between asceticism and hedonism and said to end the suffering caused by desire.

The Golden Rule's ethical value of reciprocity does not satisfy the axiological criteria of maximality and compatibility and so cannot by itself be a satisfactory system of ethics. However, when applied to meta-ethics it becomes the axiological criterion of universality, similar to Kant's categorical imperative.

Of the Ten Commandments, the first four indicate an insecure god afraid of losing his authority. The remaining three commandments should in a free society only have the force of good advice. Evil is either of sadism or injustice. Sadism is any person's practice of taking pleasure in another being's unhappiness as an end in itself. Humans are not by nature necessarily sadistic or unjust, but they are, like all known organisms, naturally self-interested.

Like being alive, being self-interested is almost always a necessary cause of being unjust, but that makes neither life nor self-interest necessarily evil.

Humans, like all known social organisms, are naturally cooperative. Humans are not by nature necessarily evil, but their natural self-interest gives them a natural capacity for evil. In their natural social environment of family and community, humans tend naturally to be more good than evil, and to cooperate for mutual benefit. Love is strong affection and devotion. Romantic love is deep and intimate affection and devotion involving sensual passion, reproductive desire, and mutual unity of interest.

Each human should seek a mate with whom he or she has mutual sensual attraction, shared values, and compatible temperament. Humans should seek a mate by applying a balance of these three criteria, and by balancing short-term pleasure and convenience against long-term happiness.

Romantic love is worth making efforts and taking risks, and finding it thus requires wisdom and fortitude. If circumstances preclude finding it, then living happily without it also requires wisdom and fortitude. Humans should honor the memories of their ancestors. Humans should respect and repay the devotion of their parents. Human siblings and cousins should provide each other fellowship and aid. Humans should have as many children as they can provide with a materially and emotionally sound upbringing.

Humans should instill in their children personal virtues and extropian and human values. Fellowship is the enjoyment of human company through the sharing of ideas, humor, competition, industry, or fun. Industry is economic, intellectual, or artistic production. Humans should practice industry to provide for their material well-being and to satisfy their appetite for learning and feeling useful.

Humans should throughout their lives try to improve their understanding of the foundations and frontiers of human knowledge. Urinary iodine concentrations for determining iodine status deficiency in populations. Goitre as a determinant of the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders in populations. Iodine deficiency, list of publications. Global iodine status in and trends over the past decade. In NLIS, it is used as a proxy for access to health services and maternal care.

The indicator gives the percentage of live births attended by skilled health personnel in a given period. A skilled birth attendant is an accredited health professional—such as a midwife, doctor or nurse—who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal uncomplicated pregnancies, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period, and in the identification, management and referral of women and newborns for complications. In developed countries and in many urban areas in developing countries, skilled care at delivery is usually provided in health facilities.

Births do, however, take place in various other appropriate places, from home to tertiary referral centres, depending on availability and need. WHO does not recommend a particular setting for giving birth. Home delivery may be appropriate for normal births, provided that the person attending the delivery is suitably trained and equipped and that referral to a higher level of care is an option, however this may lead to an overestimation of births attended by skilled personal as infants delivered outside of a health facility may not have their birth method recorded.

All women should have access to skilled care during pregnancy and at delivery to ensure the detection and management of complications. One woman dies needlessly of pregnancy-related causes every minute, representing more than half a million mothers lost each year, a figure that has improved little over the past few decades.

Another 8 million or more suffer life-long health consequences from the complications of pregnancy. The lack of progress in reducing maternal mortality in many countries often reflects the low value placed on the lives of women and their limited role in setting public priorities. The lives of many women in developing countries could be saved by reproductive health interventions that people in rich countries take for granted, such as the presence of skilled health personnel at delivery.

Improved sanitation facilit ies and drinking-water sources. What do these indicators tell us? These indicators are the percentage of population with access to an improved drinking-water source and improved sanitation facilities. How are they defined? Improved drinking-water sources are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to provide safe water. Improved water sources include household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collection.

Unimproved water sources are unprotected wells, unprotected springs, vendor-provided water, bottled water unless water for other uses is available from an improved source and tanker truck-provided water.

Improved sanitation facilities are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to be sanitary. Improved sanitation includes connection to a public sewers, connection to septic systems, pour-flush latrines, simple pit latrines and ventilated improved pit latrines. Service or bucket latrines from which excreta are removed manually , public latrines and open latrines are not considered to be improved sanitation.

Access to safe drinking-water and improved sanitation are fundamental needs and human rights vital for the dignity and health of all people. The health and economic benefits of a safe water supply to households and individuals especially children are well documented. Both indicators are used to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. World Health Statistics, Children aged 1 y ear immunized against measles. Estimates of vaccination coverage of children aged 1 year are used to monitor vaccination services, to guide disease eradication and elimination programmes and as indicators of health system performance.

Measles vaccination coverage is defined as the percentage of 1-year-olds who have received at least one dose of measles-containing vaccine in a given year. In countries that recommend that the first dose be given to children over 12 months of age, the indicator is calculated as the proportion of children under 24 months of age receiving one dose of measles-containing vaccine. Measles is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood deaths, and unvaccinated populations are at risk for the disease.

Measles is a significant infectious disease because it is so contagious that the number of people who would suffer complications after an outbreak among nonimmune people would quickly overwhelm available hospital resources. When vaccination rates fall, the number of nonimmune persons in the community rises, and the risk for an outbreak of measles consequently rises. Millennium Development Goals indicators database. This indicator reflects the percentage of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years.

It provides information about the quality and coverage of perinatal medical services. Daily iron and folic acid supplementation is currently recommended by WHO as part of antenatal care to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and iron deficiency.

However, despite its proven efficacy and wide inclusion in antenatal care programmes, its use has been limited in programme settings, possibly due to a lack of compliance, concerns about the safety of the intervention among women with an adequate iron intake, and variable availability of the supplements at community level. This indicator is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.

The indicator is defined as the proportion of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years. Data can be reported on any iron-containing supplement including iron and folic acid tablets IFA , multiple micronutrient tablets or powders, or iron-only tablets which will vary by country policy.

Improving the intake of iron and folic acid by women of reproductive age could improve pregnancy outcomes and enhance maternal and infant health. Iron and folic acid supplementation improve iron and folate status of women before and during pregnancy, in communities where food-based strategies are not yet fully implemented or effective.

Folic acid supplementation with or without iron provided before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy is also recommended for decreasing the risk of neural tube defects. Anaemia during pregnancy places women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality and also increases the risks for perinatal mortality, premature birth and low birth weight.

Infants born to anaemic mothers have less than one half the normal iron reserves. Morbidity from infectious diseases is increased in iron-deficient populations, because of the adverse effect of iron deficiency on the immune system.

Iron deficiency is also associated with reduced work capacity and with reduced neurocognitive development. Demographic and Health Surveys. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy.

This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution.

The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms.

Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.

Children with diarrhoea receiving zinc. This indicator reflects the prevalence of children who were given zinc as part of treatment for acute diarrhoea. Unfortunately, there are no readily available data on this indicator, which is maintained in the NLIS to encourage countries to collect and compile data on these aspects in order to assess their national capacity. Measures to prevent childhood diarrhoeal episodes include promoting zinc intake. Diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 2 million deaths a year among children under 5, making them the second most-common cause of child death worldwide.

The greater the prevalence of zinc supplementation during diarrhoea treatment, the better the outcome of treatment for diarrhoea. WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, improved hygiene, better access to cleaner sources of drinking-water and sanitation facilities and vaccination against rotavirus in the clinical management of acute diarrhoea and also the use of zinc, which is safe and effective.

Specifically, zinc supplements given during an episode of acute diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of the episode, and giving zinc supplements for days lowers the incidence of diarrhoea in the following months. Currently no data are available. The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity. Report of a workshop to review the results of three large studies. Geneva , World Health Organization, Children aged months receiving v itamin A supplements.

These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one and two doses of vitamin A supplements, respectively. The indicators are defined as the proportion of children aged months who received one or two high doses of vitamin A supplements within 1 year. Current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every months for all children between the ages of 6 and 59 months living in affected areas.

The recommended doses are IU for month-old children and IU for those aged months. Programmes to control vitamin A deficiency enhance children's chances of survival, reduce the severity of childhood illnesses, ease the strain on health systems and hospitals and contribute to the well-being of children, their families and communities. The World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year The critical role of vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of efforts to improve child survival and therefore of the achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal, a two-thirds reduction in mortality of children under 5 by the year As there is strong evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces child mortality, measuring the proportion of children who have received vitamin A within the past 6 months can be used to monitor coverage with interventions for achieving the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.

Supplementation with vitamin A is a safe, cost-effective, efficient means for eliminating its deficiency and improving child survival. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one or two doses of vitamin A supplements.

The indicator reflects the proportion of babies born in facilities that have been designated as Baby-friendly. Proportion of births in Baby-friendly facilities is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.

This indicator is defined as the proportion of babies born in facilities designated as Baby-friendly in a calendar year. To be counted as currently Baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the last five years or been reassessed within that timeframe.

Facilities may be designed as Baby-friendly if they meet the minimum Global Criteria, which includes adherence to the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. The Ten steps include having a breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to staff, having staff trained on policy implementation, informing pregnant women on the benefits and management of breastfeeding, promoting early initiation of breastfeeding, among others.

The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes restricts the distribution of free infant formula and promotional materials from infant formula companies. The more of the Steps that the mother experiences, the better her success with breastfeeding. Improved breastfeeding practices worldwide could save the lives of over children every year.

National implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Mothers of children months receiving counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers.

Optimal practices include early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by appropriate complementary with continued breastfeeding for 2 years or beyond. Even though it is a natural act, breastfeeding is also a learned behaviour. Virtually all mothers can breastfeed provided they have accurate information, and support within their families and communities and from the health care system.

This indicator has been established to measure the proportion of mothers receiving breastfeeding counselling, support or messages. The proportion of mothers of children months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the previous 12 months is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.

The indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the last year. Counseling and informational support on optimal breastfeeding practices for mothers has been demonstrated to improve initiation and duration of breastfeeding, which in has many health benefits for both the mother and infant.

Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and may also have longer-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. Breastfeeding has also been associated with higher intelligence quotient IQ in children. Salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for eliminating iodine-deficiency disorders as a public health problem, and the aim is to achieve universal salt iodization.

While other foodstuffs can be iodized, salt has the advantage of being widely consumed and inexpensive. Salt has been iodized routinely in some industrialized countries since the s. This indicator is a measure of whether a fortification programme is reaching the target population adequately. The indicator is a measure of the percentage of households consuming iodized salt, defined as salt containing parts per million of iodine. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with thyroid problems e.

Consumption of iodized salt increased in the developing world during the past decade: This means that about 84 million newborns are now being protected from learning disabilities due to iodine-deficiency disorders. Monitoring the situation of women and children.

Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by Micronutrient deficiencies, iodine deficiency disorders. Population with less than the minimum dietary energy consumption.

This indicator is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements, and who therefore are undernourished or food-deprived. The estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO of the prevalence of undernourishment are essentially measures of food deprivation based on calculations of three parameters for each country: The average amount of food available for human consumption is derived from national 'food balance sheets' compiled by FAO each year, which show how much of each food commodity a country produces, imports and withdraws from stocks for other, non-food purposes.

FAO then divides the energy equivalent of all the food available for human consumption by the total population, to derive average daily energy consumption. Data from household surveys are used to derive a coefficient of variation to account for the degree of inequality in access to food. Similarly, because a large adult needs almost twice as much dietary energy as a 3-year-old child, the minimum energy requirement per person in each country is based on age, gender and body sizes in that country.

The average energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body weight, body composition and levels of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health.

It includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of the mother and child. The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group.

FAO reports the proportion of the population whose daily food intake falls below that minimum energy requirement as 'undernourished'. Trends in undernourishment are due mainly to: The indicator is a measure of an important aspect of food insecurity in a population.

Sustainable development requires a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including solutions to hunger and malnutrition. Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction, as undernourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity. Malnutrition can be the outcome of a range of circumstances. In order for poverty reduction strategies to be effective, they must address food access, availability and safety.

Rome, October The State of Food Insecurity in the World Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. FAO methodology to estimate the prevalence of undernourishment. FAO, Rome, 9 October Infant and young child feeding.

The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding. This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality. Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed.

This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water. The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine.

Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers.

An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants.

It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness. Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources.

It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.

When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide.

Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. As per revised recommendation by TEAM in June , dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups: Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet.

Proportion of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.

The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from: Dietary diversity is present when the diet contained four or more of the following food groups: The minimum daily meal frequency is defined as: A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged 6—23 months. Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality.

Source of all infant and young child feeding indicators. Infant and Young Child Feeding database. Infant and young child feeding list of publications.

Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding.

It is the proportion of children aged months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution and continued feeding. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost-effective intervention indicates progress towards the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.

Health expenditure includes that for the provision of health services, family planning activities, nutrition activities and emergency aid designated for health, but excludes the provision of water and sanitation. Health financing is a critical component of health systems. National health accounts provide a large set of indicators based on information on expenditure collected within an internationally recognized framework.

National health accounts consist of a synthesis of the financing and spending flows recorded in the operation of a health system, from funding sources and agents to the distribution of funds between providers and functions of health systems and benefits geographically, demographically, socioeconomically and epidemiologically. General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure is the proportion of total government expenditure on health.

General government expenditure includes consolidated direct and indirect outlays, such as subsidies and transfers, including capital, of all levels of government social security institutions, autonomous bodies and other extrabudgetary funds. It consists of recurrent and capital spending from government central and local budgets, external borrowings and grants including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations and social or compulsory health insurance funds.

GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government central and local budgets, external borrowings and grants including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations and social or compulsory health insurance funds.

Private health expenditure is the sum of outlays for health by private entities, such as commercial or mutual health insurance providers, non-profit institutions serving households, resident corporations and quasi-corporations not controlled by government involved in health services delivery or financing, and direct household out-of-pocket payments.

These indicators reflect total and public expenditure on health resources, access and services, including nutrition. Although increasing health expenditures are associated with better health outcomes, especially in low-income countries, there is no 'recommended' level of spending on health.

The larger the per capita income, the greater the expenditure on health. Some countries, however, spend appreciably more than would be expected from their income levels, and some appreciably less. When a government spends little of its GDP or attributes less of its total expenditure on health, this may indicate that health, including nutrition , are not regarded as priorities.

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